Highlighting Progress Archives

Developing Models of Human Diseases - Expand and ensure access to animal models

Protease Inhibition Increases the Efficiency of Potential Gene Therapy for Glaucoma Treatment

March 14, 2018

Short-term exposure of the eye’s trabecular meshwork to a proteasome inhibitor increased the efficiency of gene delivery to specific cells in monkey organ-cultured anterior segments. These data suggest a strategy to improve ocular gene therapy for treatment of glaucoma.

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Effective Vaccine for Prevention of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)

March 14, 2018

Subcutaneous vaccination of rhesus macaques with a cytomegalovirus vector encoding Mtb inserts elicited and maintained T cell responses and reduced Mtb infection and disease by 68% in vaccinated versus control macaques after an intrabronchial challenge.

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ORIP Participates in Rapid Zika Virus Model Development

February 28, 2017

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first detected in Brazil in 2015 and has since become a global pandemic. The World Health Association declared the ZIKV pandemic a public health emergency in February 2016. Because there is little known to date about the virus, there is an urgent need for animal models to better understand the pathology of transmission and to test therapeutic interventions.

ORIP has a particular interest in developing and characterizing animal models that can be used to study basic aspects of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis and has responded to the global ZIKV pandemic. ORIP has awarded several grants following their notice to participate in the funding opportunity announcement (FOA) “Rapid Assessment of Zika Virus (ZIKV) Complications (PAR-16-106).” This FOA promotes ongoing submission, review, and award of applications that address issues related to this emerging pathogen as a public health crisis. ORIP meets with the other 8 participating Institutes and Centers (NICHD, NIAID, NIDCR, NINDS, NEI, NIBIB, NIMH and NHLBI) to discuss best practices and implementation of continuous submission of applications.

Developing Models of Human Diseases - Continue to develop and enhance human disease models and research-related resource programs to advance medical research

Fair-Minded Rats Pay Helpers with Food

March 14, 2018

‘Rub my back and I’ll give you a sweet’ — rats engage in this kind of trade, suggesting that cooperation among animals is more widespread than thought.

Norway rats are known to exchange food and grooming sessions. But investigators wanted to know whether the animals would swap dissimilar resources, such as food in exchange for grooming.

Test animals were generally eager to groom the partners who had gifted them food, and vice versa. But test animals tended to be stingy with favors towards a partner that had given them nothing.

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Support of Technologies

March 14, 2018

ORIP supports high-quality animal models, and specialized animal research facilities, to meet the needs of biomedical researchers. Through the small business program, ORIP is funding research aimed at developing new technologies to improve those animal models and facilities.

Examples of ORIP supported new technologies include the Collagen Hybridizing Peptide, that provides a versatile tool for developmental biology research and histology-based disease diagnosis, staging, and therapeutic screening of collagen, and the Embryo Cradle device used to grow and study the behavior of human gastric epithelial spheroids (organoids) generated from adult tissue samples.

Humanized Mice Advance Research

March 14, 2018

The Center for Humanized Mice Development (University of Nebraska Medical Center) is developing improved animal models as resources to study human immunity, human-specific infections, vaccines, and human-specific drug interactions.

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A new mouse model with human liver enzymes provided the opportunity to test therapeutic activity and toxicity of anti-retroviral drug metabolites.

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Humanized mice were also used to test new eradication strategies using CRIPR/cas9 excision and long-acting, slow effective release therapies.

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A Whole-Animal Platform for Development of New High-Efficiency and Low-Toxicity Drugs

March 14, 2018

Scientists from one of the Pilot Centers for Precision Disease Modeling funded by ORIP (Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY), are developing drug-based therapeutics that target abnormal networks. They reported discovery of a new class of “tumor-calibrated inhibitors” with strongly improved therapeutic index in fly and human cancer xenograft models. This approach may also prove useful in drug development strategies outside of oncology, such as neural and cardiovascular diseases.

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Authors published a Concept article introducing a new DREAM Challenge to help realize the promise of their rational polypharmacology approach.

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Zika Virus (ZIKV) Infection in Pregnant Rhesus Macaques Causes Placental Dysfunction

March 14, 2018

Pregnant rhesus macaques infected subcutaneously with ZIKV demonstrated outwardly normal fetal growth, but persistent fetal-placenta-maternal infection and adverse effects on placental oxygen reserve and decreased oxygen permeability. Uteroplacental pathology that affects oxygen delivery to the fetus may be involved in Congenital Zika Syndrome.

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Regulation of Tissue Expansion in Drosophila Intestine

February 6, 2018

Scientists at Indiana University are delineating the molecular and cellular activities of the conserved regenerative pathway, Lin-28, that is involved in developmental timing and regulates the self-renewal of stem cells.  Essential details about this pathway, its mRNA targets, mechanism of action and regulation are currently unknown. In a recent study, scientists reported that fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) functions via LIN-28 to control the behavior of intestine progenitor cells in response to nutrition. Since the loss of FMRP in humans causes fragile X syndrome (FXS), the study raises the possibility that defective adaptive growth might be causing pathological conditions that are affecting FXS patients.

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Hypothalamic Production of Estradiol is Essential for Induction of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Surge and Ovulation in Nonhuman Primates (NHPs)

February 6, 2018

Exogenous estradiol treatment cannot elicit an LH surge in ovariectomized NHPs whose endogenous estradiol is suppressed with an aromatase inhibitor. These results indicate the obligatory role of hypothalamic estradiol production in stimulating the LH surge and subsequent ovulation.

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Inhibition of tryptophan Catabolism Augments Immune-mediated Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)

February 6, 2018

Tryptophan metabolites suppress host immunity and Mtb induces expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme, which is involved in tryptophan catabolism. Suppression of the IDO enzyme in Mtb-infected macaques reduced bacterial burden, pathology, and clinical signs of tuberculous (TB) suggesting inhibition of IDO has potential for an effective and clinically relevant host-directed therapy for TB.

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Targeting the HIV/AIDS Viral Reservoir

February 6, 2018

Studies in antiretroviral-treated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques indicate a specific group of CD4+ memory T cells harbors SIV DNA that is replication-competent and potentially infectious; these T cells are located in multiple tissues and express cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), but not programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). Therapies designed to eliminate HIV from infected patients should consider CTLA4 as a target.

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Aged Rhesus Macaques as a Model for Alzheimer's Disease

January 10, 2018

Detailed immunoelectron microscopy and biochemical assays of aging rhesus macaque brains indicate a disease progression that recapitulates Alzheimer’s disease in humans suggesting the rhesus would be an appropriate model for Alzheimer's disease. 

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New World Monkey Model Reproduces Key Features of Human Zika Virus (ZIKV) Infection

January 10, 2018

Similarities between ZIKV infection of marmoset monkeys and humans include: asymptomatic in most cases, persistence of ZIKV in bodily fluids, and generation of neutralizing antibodies. Re-challenge of the monkeys with a Brazilian strain of ZIKV resulted in protection from re-infection. Results support use of this marmoset as a model for the human disease.

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A Mutant Mouse Centralized Repository for Researchers

June 15, 2017

The Mutant Mouse Resource and Research Center (MMRRC) is a program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) that strives to expand and ensure access to well-defined, high-quality rodent models for biomedical research. Supported by ORIP’s Division of Comparative Medicine and aligned with ORIP’s 2016‒2020 Strategic Plan to develop novel models of human diseases to study, understand, and eventually cure complex diseases, the MMRRC consists of four centers (at the University of California at Davis, University of Missouri, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and The Jackson Laboratory) that operate as a central repository to accept, cryopreserve, maintain, and distribute mutant mouse strains. By accepting reagents from researchers, the MMRRC promotes an environment of responsible conduct of research, where scientists are obliged to share their resources with each other, which minimizes costs and time associated with the distribution of reagents. From 2010 to April 2017, the MMRRC received more than 8,633 orders from investigators. The MMRRC saves scientists time and costly efforts of having to house, breed, rederive, and characterize mice and conduct duplicative studies due to unexpected phenotypes and experimental variability. The MMRRC now offers next-generation gene sequencing technology of gut microbiota in mice to better equip researchers to conduct reliable and reproducible science, and to avoid unexpected study results. In 2016, the NIH funded the second phase of the newly developed Common Fund’s Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP 2) to make more than 3,000 new genetic knockout mice available through the MMRRC program

A Four Dimensional Atlas of Dynamic Embryo Imaging

June 15, 2017

The complexity of the neurological circuitry and development in higher ordered vertebrates has hindered the ability to dynamically capture single cells, the entire nervous system, and the overall process of development. The invertebrate nematode (roundworm) Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is an ideal organism for modeling neurodevelopment because of its simplistic nervous system. C. elegans is used to answer important research questions regarding how cells function and the role of certain genes. Scientists have grappled with modeling embryo development in this organism because of rapid embryonic movement, muscle twitching, and the lack of spatial resolution commonly observed by microscopy. These challenges result in poor image quality and lowered dimensionality. Despite certain technical enhancements in microscopic imaging, the morphological changes in the embryo hamper the ability to view individual cells. Genetically engineered C. elegans that express fluorescent markers are being used to easily view individual cells and dynamically track the stages of development. The National Institutes of Health supported a research collaboration to create a novel four dimensional (4D) atlas of embryogenesis and neurodevelopment in C. elegans1 through a project called Worm Global Understanding in Dynamic Embryonic Systems (WormGUIDES).2 This atlas is the first 4D embryo atlas of nuclear positions of all cells of the worm embryo. Captured images representing the entire organism can be computationally “untwisted.”1 Collected images allow scientists to track cellular components and to combine data from multiple C. elegans to model time-lapse development. Available through a mobile or desktop application3, WormGUIDES develops an interactive tool that presents the 4D atlas of single cells and their coordinated movement, gene expression, and overall development. Users can access information regarding cellular positioning and neuron growth during embryogenesis. WormGUIDES provides a reference tool and may assist in identifying therapeutic targets of disease.

 

References

1 Christensen RP, Bokinsky A, Santella A, Wu Y, Marquina-Solis J, Guo M, Kovacevic I, Kumar A, Winter PW, Tashakkori N, McCreedy E, Liu H, McAuliffe M, Mohler W, Colón-Ramos DA, Boa Z, Shroff H. Untwisting the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. eLife. 2015(4):e10070

2 Santella A, Catena R, Kovacevic I, Shah P, Yu Z, Marquina-Solis J, Kumar A, Wu Y, Schaff J, Colón-Ramos, DA, Shroff H, Mohler WA, Bao Z. WormGUIDES: an interactive single cell developmental atlas and tool for collaborative multidimensional data exploration. BMC Bioinformatics. 2015 June 9(16):189.  

3 http://www.wormguides.org/home

Pilot Centers for Precision Modeling

February 28, 2017

Recent scientific and technological advances, such as affordable whole genome sequencing and molecular profiling, enable us to study the genetics and pathogenesis of many human diseases. The goal of using this information is to provide patient-precise treatments based on their unique genetic composition and molecular phenotype. Obstacles to this goal are the absence of an effective means to interpret patient genetic/omic data for clinical use in diverse patient populations. Creating animal models to generate reliable preclinical data for human studies is a fundamental step needed to reach the goal.

In response, the ORIP Division of Comparative Medicine initiated the Pilot Centers for Precision Disease Modeling program to provide advanced animal models to the biomedical community for: 1) examining the causal relationships of genetics and omic information to human biology and disease; 2) validating disease-associated genetic variations and biomarkers; 3) reducing drug candidate attrition; and 4) developing new individualized therapies for monogenic and complex disorders. These Centers are creating pipelines for pre-clinical scientific discovery, disease modeling, and development of interventions based on innovative animal models. Eventually these preclinical pipelines may play an integral role in patient diagnostics, care and therapeutic treatment.

Developing Models of Human Diseases - Explore ways to improve the reproducibility of research using disease models

A Mutant Mouse Centralized Repository for Researchers

June 15, 2017

The Mutant Mouse Resource and Research Center (MMRRC) is a program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) that strives to expand and ensure access to well-defined, high-quality rodent models for biomedical research. Supported by ORIP’s Division of Comparative Medicine and aligned with ORIP’s 2016‒2020 Strategic Plan to develop novel models of human diseases to study, understand, and eventually cure complex diseases, the MMRRC consists of four centers (at the University of California at Davis, University of Missouri, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and The Jackson Laboratory) that operate as a central repository to accept, cryopreserve, maintain, and distribute mutant mouse strains. By accepting reagents from researchers, the MMRRC promotes an environment of responsible conduct of research, where scientists are obliged to share their resources with each other, which minimizes costs and time associated with the distribution of reagents. From 2010 to April 2017, the MMRRC received more than 8,633 orders from investigators. The MMRRC saves scientists time and costly efforts of having to house, breed, rederive, and characterize mice and conduct duplicative studies due to unexpected phenotypes and experimental variability. The MMRRC now offers next-generation gene sequencing technology of gut microbiota in mice to better equip researchers to conduct reliable and reproducible science, and to avoid unexpected study results. In 2016, the NIH funded the second phase of the newly developed Common Fund’s Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP 2) to make more than 3,000 new genetic knockout mice available through the MMRRC program

Accelerating Research Discoveries by Providing Access to State-of-the-Art Instrumentation - Optimize the instrumentation program through forward-looking program management

Implement Improved metrics to evaluate the S10 Program

March 30, 2017

From the currently submitted applications, ORIP staff drew information about the status of the instruments awarded to the applicant institutions in the last 5 years; that is, fiscal years (FYs) 2011-2015. ORIP’s analysis covered over 80% of all instruments awarded in that period; these instruments are well maintained and being used. Based on the data provided, more clearly defined instructions for responding to questions on instrument status and hours of use were included in funding announcements for FY 2017.

Modify the S10 program requirements and administration to augment its cost effectiveness and utility for the biomedical research community.

In FY 2016, ORIP introduced an opportunity to apply for Special Use Instruments. These instruments can be used in a clinical setting as long as special budgetary and managerial conditions are met to ensure the priority and predominant protected time for biomedical research. One such award was issued for a system consisting of a 3 Tesla MRI scanner and an X-ray angiography interventional system to support research and clinical uses.

Accelerating Research Discoveries by Providing Access to State-of-the-Art Instrumentation - Continue to accelerate research discoveries by providing access to state-of-the-art instrumentation

Inverted Confocal Microscope

May 1, 2018

As reported in recent three publications, investigators at the University of Delaware use the ORIP-funded confocal microscope (S10OD016361) to study the morphology and activity of cellular organelles in the context of immunity and disease resistance. Another S10-awarded microscope (S10 RR027273) also served these experiments. In work funded by NIGMS grants (R01GM097587, P20GM103446), researchers investigated cellular mechanisms related to the release of immune signals, recognition of pathogens, and generation of defense responses. Using their own, novel, fluorescence-based methods for 3D cellular phenotyping and time-dependent host-pathogen-interactions combined with specialized computation tools for fluorescence imaging data analysis, researchers related organelle dynamics to molecular signaling.

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Single Molecule Real Time Sequencer

May 1, 2018

Three articles, published within the last two months, report discoveries enabled by an ORIP-funded sequencer (S10OD018174). The instrument placed in a core facility is used by many scientists; papers cited in these three papaers cumulatively credit 13 different investigators as co-authors, with research grants from six NIH Institutes and Centers. These papers address different scientific topics – genome-wide epigenomic alterations of fetal microglial genes; the integration of metabolite profiling, shotgun sequencing, and exometabolomics to study the structure of microbial communities; impact of formula feeding of premature infants on gut microbiome genes responsible for drug resistance – illustrating the breadth of science enabled by the shared instrument.

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750MHZ Wide Bore NMR Spectrometer

May 1, 2018

One strategy in drug design is to inhibit HIV virus replication by targeting the HIV capsid maturation process. This process involves a complex morphological transformation of the HIV Gag protein via an orchestrated series of proteolytic cleavage events. With a 750 MHz NMR spectrometer provided by ORIP’s S10OD12213 grant, critical dynamics of the two HIV capsid peptides (SP1 and CA), in the intermediate assembly state during the capsid maturation, were revealed. Furthermore, it was shown that two maturation inhibitors, Bevirimat and DFH-055, stabilize a helical form of one of the capsid peptides. The spectrometer, shared among 12 major users at U Pittsburgh, contributes to collaborations in this and related research areas across the country.

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600 MHz NMR Spectrometer and Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

May 1, 2018

The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus may cause life-threatening hospital-acquired infections. S. aureus uses the sortase A (SrtA) cysteine transpeptidase to display surface protein virulence factors. Researchers at UCLA applied NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to determine the mechanism of SrtA inhibition, using a highly soluble analogue of pyridazinone. Aided by computational chemistry, several compounds with high inhibitor activity were synthesized, suggesting that pyridazinone analogues are promising anti-infective drug candidates. NMR and MS instruments used in the study were supported by the S10OD016336 and S10RR025631 shared instrumentation awards; a total of 64 publications report data collected with these instruments. Read article

High-Performance Compute Cluster for Molecular Science

March 14, 2018

UC Berkeley researchers study metal-mediated organic syntheses with a goal of preparing classes of pharmaceutical intermediates. These two papers report on different catalytic reactions and different functionalization of different bonds (C-H, C-N, C-O and C-S bonds in amines, ethers, sulfides and their derivatives). In both studies, an ORIP-awarded high-performance computer (S10OD023532) augmented chemistry and biophysics experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of reaction rates, reaction pathways, energy barriers, and transition states. Also, computations gave deeper insight into bond-selectivity. The just-installed computer benefits over 20 investigators at the College of Chemistry, supported by grants from several NIH Institutes.

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Cryo-EM Microscope and Dedicated Compute Cluster for Single Particle Cryo-EM

March 14, 2018

The ORIP-awarded single-particle cryo-EM (S10OD021741), located at UCSF, was used in experiments to determine the structure of a transient receptor potential melastatin cation channel (TRPM). The member called TRPM4 is impermeable to but activated by calcium, so investigations targeted conformational changes due to calcium binding. The 3A structures resolved with an ORIP-funded computer cluster (S10OD020054) reveal subtle inter-domain interactions, which may be related to the channel’s selectivity and voltage dependence. These two S10 instruments supported work funded by 23 NIH research grants. 

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Compute and Data Storage Cluster for Electron Microscopy

March 14, 2018

New cryo-EM detectors allow collecting high-quality data, yielding previously non-attainable high-resolution structures of proteins such as ion channels. Here, researchers at Duke and Scripps report a 4.1 A resolution structure of a member of the transient receptor potential melastatin cation channel family. This result contributes to fundamental understanding of channel activation, gating, and interfacial interactions in the context of cold-sensing. Data were analyzed with an ORIP-awarded computer cluster (S10OD021634). The cluster (awarded in 2016, installed in 2017) made a mark on research supported by NIBIB, NIGMS, and NINDS, and reported in 4 high-profile publications.

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High-Performance Compute Cluster and Storage System

March 14, 2018

Researchers at Columbia University report a template-based method for prediction of protein-ligand interactions. In tests, this method compares favorably with existing template-based methods and other computational approaches. Of note is that outcomes suggest the correct identification of off-target drug binding sites and accurate predictions of ligand-protein binding in cases when proteins exhibit a weak sequence similarity to the template. This is one of eleven 2017 papers, cumulatively supported by 20 different NIH-research grants, reporting computational results enabled by the ORIP-awarded compute cluster (S10OD012351) and storage system (S10OD021764).

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Structure-based prediction of ligand–protein interactions on a genome-wide scale

February 27, 2018

Researchers at Columbia University report a template-based method for prediction of protein-ligand interactions. In tests, this method compares favorably with existing template-based methods and other computational approaches. Of note is that outcomes suggest the correct identification of off-target drug binding sites and accurate predictions of ligand-protein binding in cases when proteins exhibit a weak sequence similarity to the template. This is one of eleven 2017 papers, cumulatively supported by 20 different NIH-research grants, reporting computational results enabled by the ORIP-awarded compute cluster (S10OD012351) and storage system (S10OD021764).

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Targeting Neoplastic Pericytes to Improve Treatment of Brain Tumors

February 22, 2018

A major obstacle for drug delivery to malignant brain tumors is the existence of a Blood Tumor Barrier (BTB).  Scientists at the Cleveland Clinic discovered that glioma stem cell (GSC)-derived pericyte coverage of tumor vasculature is inversely correlated with glioblastoma patient survival after chemotherapy. Using a PerkinElmer IVIS Spectrum CT (S10OD18205), one of 9 small-animal multi-modality CT imagers funded by the ORIP Shared Instrumentation Program in the last 3 years, researchers demonstrated that targeting the GSC-derived pericytes disrupts the BTB, and enhances the chemotherapeutic efficacy. Targeting neoplastic pericytes to significantly improve treatment of brain tumors may hold promise.

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Novel Agent for Redox-Activated Photoacoustic Imaging-Guided Photothermal Cancer Therapy

February 22, 2018

Scientists at the University of Wisconsin designed an ultra-small molybdenum-based cluster agent with long in-vivo-circulation half-life for photoacoustic (PA) image-guided photothermal therapy. Accumulating in the tumor, these clusters self-assemble into larger nanoclusters which absorb near-infrared light. Using an ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging system (S10OD18505) that serves 13 major projects and was funded by the ORIP Shared Instrumentation Program, investigators demonstrated efficacy of these clusters for PA image-guided tumor ablation in-vivo. These findings may establish a new paradigm for PA imaging agents, an approach that bridges the conventional concepts of "molecule" and "nano" in the bioimaging field.

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Delineation of Brain Activity at the Columnar Level by fMRI

February 22, 2018

The fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has specificity to detect brain activity at the columnar level. Using a 9.4T MRI system (S10 RR017799), that is shared among 12 users and was funded by the Shared Instrumentation Grant Program, researchers at Vanderbilt University demonstrated that BOLD signal is aligned spatially with the local field potential signals from multi-channel in-situ electrode array. Such arrays are considered a gold standard to measure brain activity. This work shows that the intrinsic resolution of the brain-activation signal detected by the high-field fMRI BOLD method approaches the spatial precision of invasive multi-electrode electrophysiology.

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In-depth Proteomic Survey of the Postnatal Human Brain

February 22, 2018

Researchers at Yale School Medicine quantified regional distribution of over 5000 proteins in gray matter tissue samples of developing human brain. By integrating the protein data with existing whole-transcriptome sequencing from the BrainSpan project, they noted larger regional differences in protein abundance than in RNA abundance. Comparison of structurally similar neocortical regions indicated presence of potential “protein only” region markers. Two ORIP-funded instruments were used in the study: a liquid chromatography system (S10OD019967) and a mass spectrometer (S10OD018034). Over the years, these instruments supported many projects funded by NIGMS, NINDS, NIDDK, NCI, NIAID, NHLBI, NIDA, NIAMS, NEI, and NIA.

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Deletion of Nhe1 in Astrocytes is Associated with Reduced Reactive Astrogliosis and Less Ischemic Brain Damage in Mice

February 22, 2018

Researchers at University of Pittsburgh used the ORIP-funded confocal microscope (S10OD021540) in the study of the role of the astrocytic NHE1 protein in development of reactive astrogliosis and neurovascular damage after ischemic stroke. In a mouse model, deletion of astrocytic Nhe1 gene inhibited astrogliosis, reduced stroke volume, prevented blood-brain-barrier damage, and improved regional cerebral blood flow after ischemic stroke, providing evidence of causative role of the NHE1 protein in reactive astrogliosis and neurovascular damage after ischemic injury. The instrument, placed in Center for Biologic Imaging, supports projects in diverse fields such as cell biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, and infectious disease.

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Provide Support for Technologies

March 30, 2017

In fiscal year (FY) 2016, the S10 Shared/High-End Instrumentation Program funded 107 awards. As in the past, the Program responded to the needs of researchers from across the nation by funding different types of instruments proportionally to requests received and covering a broad range of technologies; including, X-ray detectors, mass and NMR spectrometers, atomic force, light and electron microscopes, calorimeters, sequencers, biomedical imagers, computers and data storage systems. The Program responds to the emerging needs of the researchers as new technologies become available and enter the market; this year the Program awarded a 3D printer, which is used to create specialized nozzles for X-ray free electron laser imaging of molecular assembly structures.

Collectively, instruments awarded in FY 2016 will immediately benefit the research of almost 2000 investigators supported by grants from all NIH Institutes and Centers, several other Federal agencies including NSF, DOD, DOE, NASA, DARPA, over 80 private foundations, and start-up funds for new faculty at academic institutions.

Partner with NIH ICs

As part of an NIH-wide focus, ORIP is interested in best practices for data generation, management and sharing. ORIP, NIGMSNLM, and BD2K, collaborated to issue the notice (NOT-OD-16-091) requesting information on Data Annotation in Biomedical Core Research Facilities and Related Needs for Community Education and Training. (See the Executive Summary of results).