Coronavirus Studies in Nonhuman Primate Models

 

This page provides a curated list of coronavirus studies and reviews using nonhuman primate (NHP) models.

Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Duke University School of Medicine; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; NIAID; Division of Viral Products, FDA; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Univerity of Pennsylvania; Corporate Research Materials Lab, 3M Company; Infectious Disease Research Institute; BIOQUAL
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ferritin nanoparticle (RBD-scNP) vaccine, virus variants, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Study demonstrates that scNP vaccines wth SARS-CoV-2 spike or spike subunits confer potent protection in NHPs against WA-1, Beta and Delta variants, and that they induce neutralizing antibodies to all SARS-CoV-2 variants tested in vitro.
References: doi: 10.1101/2022.01.26.477915
Contact Info: Kevin Saunders: kevin.saunders@duke.edu; Barton Haynes: barton.haynes@duke.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.01.26.477915v2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: MIT; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard; Ragan Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard; University of Duisburg-Essen; Space Exploration Technologies Corp.; Harvard University; Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine; University of Bonn; Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness; Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Womoen's Hospital; Harvard Humanitarian Initiative
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, immune biomarkers, reinfection, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: A specific set of SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral features, including spike RBD-specific IgG1 titers, nucleocapsid-specific IgG3 titers, and anti-spike RBD FcyR2A binding activity, were identified as robust biomarkers of reinfection that translate across species. When reinfection cannot be confirmed by viral sequence, changes in SARS-CoV-2 humoral immune responses may offer inexpensive, reliable, and effective measures to track reinfection.
References: PMID: 35073738 / doi: 10.1128/mbio.02141-21
Contact Info: Douglas Lauffenburger: lauffen@mit.edu; Galit Alter: galter@mgh.harvard.edu
URL: https://journals.asm.org/doi/full/10.1128/mbio.02141-21?rfr_dat=cr_pub%20%200pub…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College; the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University; Guangzhou Eigth People's Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University; Bio-Island; Graduate School of Peking Union Medical College; NIFDC; Fulgent Pharma LLC
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pan-sarbecovirus vaccines, STING agonist CF501, virus variants, immune response, mice, rabbits, primates.
Summary of Study: A pan-sarbecovirus vaccine was designed by using human IgG Fc-conjugated RBD from the original SARS-CoV-2 strain as the vaccine's immunogen and the STING agonist CF501 as the vaccine's adjuvant. This CF501/RBD-Fc vaccine candidate was able to induce extremely potent, durable, and broad-spectrum nAb and T cell resposnes, as well as protective immunity, suggesting its potential for development as a highly potent and durable pan-sarbecovirus vaccine.
References: PMID: 35046518 / doi: 10.1038/s41422-022-00612-2
Contact Info: Youchun Wang: wangyc@nifdc.org.cn; Yilong Zhang: yilongzhang@fulgentpharma.com; Jincun Zhao: zhaojincun@gird.cn
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41422-022-00612-2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, african green monkeys
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, review
NPRC/Institute: Biomedical Primate Research Centre/The Netherlands; NIAID; University Paris-Saclay, Inserm; Tulane National Primate Research Center; University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine; University of Pittsburgh Center for Vaccine Research; Texas Biomedical Research Institute; Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, advanced medical imaging, pathogenesis, primates
Summary of Study: The reviewers argue that advanced imaging tools add unique insight into poorly understood relationships of SARS-CV-2 exposure, infection, the host response, and disease presentation in the lungs.
References: PMID: 34955425 / doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2021.12.001
Contact Info: Marieke Stammes: stammes@bprc.nl
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1471491421003166?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; Washington University; National Cancer Institute/NIH; Bioqual; Oak Ridge Institute of Science & Education; Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons; Texas Biomedical Research Institute
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, spike protein ferritin nanoparticle (SpFN) vaccine, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: NHPs vaccinated with two doses of SpFN plus adjuvant separated by 28 days developed potent SARS-CoV-2-specific B and T cell responses, which conferred protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge.
References: PMID: 34914540 / doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abi5735
Contact Info: Kayvon Modjarrad: kayvon.modjarrad.civ@mail.mil
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/scitranslmed.abi5735?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Paris-East Creteil University; Universite Paris-Saclay Fontenay-aux-Roses; CEA-INSERM, University of Lille; Universite de Lyon; Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Lyon; Institut Curie; Justus Liebig University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, lung cell senescence, RNA analysis, pathology, humans, primates
Summary of Study: Cell senescence was monitored in cynomologus macaques to evaluate potential links between SARS-CoV-2 infection and aging. Data constitute the first evidence of temporal and topographic relations between senescent cell accumulation and pulmonary lesions induced by SARS-CoV-2.
References: PMID: 34648725 / doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2021-0205LE
Contact Info: Serge Adnot: serge.adnot@inserm.fr
URL: https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/10.1165/rcmb.2021-0205LE?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Medicago Inc.; Stanford University School of Medicine; Tulane National Primate Research Center; Tulane University School of Medicine; Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, unadjuvanted and adjuvanted formulations, recombinant plant-derived virus-like particle vaccine, safety, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: A VLP bearing a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein vaccine candidate formulated with Adjuvant System 03 (AS03) was shown to be safe and effective and was therefore selected for vaccine development and clinical trials.
References: PMID: 34983950 / doi: 10.1038/s41423-021-00809-2
Contact Info: Brian Ward: wardb@medicago.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41423-021-00809-2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Sciences; Fudan University; Shanghai King-Cell Biotechnology Co., Ltd.; Mabwell Bioscience Co., Ltd.; Shenzhen University; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, self-adjuvating peptide vaccine, CoVac501, immune response, virus variants, primates
Summary of Study: CoVac501, a novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that is fully chemically synthesized and self-adjuvanting, provided potent protecton for cynomolgus macaques against challenges from very high doses of SARS-CoV-2.
References: PMID: 35102138 / doi: 10.1038/s41421-021-00370-2
Contact Info: Qiuping Qin: pqqin@cdser.simm.ac.cn
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41421-021-00370-2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Northwestern University; Tulane National Primate Research Center; NIAID; Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute; Bioqual; New Iberia Research Center
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, antibody-based in vivo probe system, lungs, primates
Summary of Study: Results provide proof of concept for the use of in vivo antibody-based probes to study SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics in rhesus macaques.
References: PMID: 35003140 / doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.810047
Contact Info: Thomas Hope: thope@northwestern.edu
URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2021.810047/full
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: prevention, therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: University of Washington; Washington National Primate Research Center; Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Taipei; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd5/35++), HSC gene therapy, safety, virus protection, mice, primates
Summary of Study: Pilot studies of a simple and portable in vivo hematopoietic HSC transduction approach that involves HSC mobilization from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood stream and the intravenous injection of an integrating, helper-dependent adenovirus vector system demonstrated safety and efficacy in mice and a rhesus macaque.
References: PMID: 35057635 / doi: 10.1089/hum.2021.295
Contact Info: Andre Lieber: lieber00@uw.edu; Steve Roffler: sroff@ibms.sinica.edu.tw; Hans-Peter Kiem: hkiem@fredhutch.org; Deborah Fuller: fullerdh@uw.edu
URL: https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/hum.2021.295?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=o…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Southwest National Primate Research Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute; Washington University; Tulane National Primate Research Center
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, longitudinal scRNAseq, bronchoalveolar lavage, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Results unequivocally show that in protected, immunocompetent hosts, SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by an acute inflammatory response leading to a myeloid cell influx into the lung compartment. Induction of a robust IFN response in macrophages strongly correlates with viremia and subsequent clearance of SARS-CoV-2 from the airways of macaques.
References: PMID: 35115549 / doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-28315-7
Contact Info: Maxim Artyomov: martyomov@wustl.edu
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-022-28315-7
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Zhongshan School of Medicine; Qianyang Biomedical Research Institute; Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, bivalent vaccine, D614G/B.1.351, vaccine dosage, mice, primates
Summary of Study: With a prime-boost or single-dose strategy a bivalent D614G/B.1.351 RBD nanoparticle vaccine elicited robust nAbs and full protection against infection with the authentic D614 or B.1.351 strains in human ACE2 transgene mice. Furthermore, 8 months after inoculation with the D614G-specific vaccine, a new boost with this bivalent vaccine potently elicited cross-nAbs for SARS-CoV-2 variants in rhesus macaques.
References: PMID: 34990583 / doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.110256
Contact Info: Yiwen Zhang: zhangyw57@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Hui Zhang: zhangh92@mail.sysu.edu.cn
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221112472101768X?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medicine Sciences & Peking Union Medical College; National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, heterologous vaccines, intradermal administration, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: This study reports a new heeterologous prime-boost strategy of intradermal immunization with the inactivated vaccine and K-S antigen. This strategy can significantly increase the neutralizing antibody titers and promote specific T cell responses in mice and macaques.
References: PMID: 34931939 / doi: 10.1080/22221751.2021807https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/22221751.2021.2021807
Contact Info: Wenbo Xu: wenbo_xu1@aliyun.com; Qihan Li: liqihan@imbcams.com.cn
URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/22221751.2021.2021807
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Emory University; University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine; Butantan Institute; La Jolla Institute for Immunology
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, DNA vaccine HIVBr18, HLA class II vaccine epitopes, immunity, humans and primates
Summary of Study: Results provide preliminary proof of concept that immunization with a vaccine encoding epitopes with high and redundant coverage of the human population can elicit potent T cell responses to multiple epitopes, across species and MHC barriers.
References: PMID: 34961636 / doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.11.076
Contact Info: Edecio Cunha-Neto: edecunha@usp.br
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X21015504?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID; Emory National Primate Research Center; Emory University School of Medicine; Bioqual; Moderna, Inc.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA-1273 vaccination, longitudinal study, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: While mRNA-1273 provided durable protection against B.1.617.2 challenge, control of the virus was briefly delayed in the lungs and limited in the nose, which may provide the virus with a greater opportunity for transmission.
References: PMID: 34921774 / doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.12.002
Contact Info: Robert Seder: rseder@mail.nih.gov; Daniel Douek: ddouek@mail.nih.gov
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867421014057?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Emergent BioSolutions; Yoh Services LLC; Sanofi Pasteur; Translate Bio; UT Health Science Center at Houston
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus variants, vaccine, boost, neutralizing effects, primates
Summary of Study: This study showed that a third vaccination administered as a booster, regardless of composition, to the currently approved two dose regimens could effectively promote broadly neutralizing antibodies against all variants of concern.
References: PMID: 35101265 / doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2022.01.021
Contact Info: Natalie Anosova: natalie.anosova@sanofi.com
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X22000457?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tulane University School of Medicine; Nanchang University; Tulane National Primate Research Center
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, CRISPR-RT–PCR assay, longitudinal analysis, mucosal, plasma, and breath samples, primates
Summary of Study: CRISPR-FDS may provide a means to evaluate systemic viral/viral RNA burden not detectable by RT-qPCR to improve diagnosis and better predict outcomes for SARS-CoV-2 infections.
References: PMID: 35108153 / doi: 10.1080/22221751.2038020
Contact Info: Tony Hu: tonyhu2tulane.edu
URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/22221751.2022.2038020
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID; La Jolla Institute for Immunology; University of California; University of Capetown
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, viral replication, pathogenesis. Immune response, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to mild, focal lung inflammation, and type 1 IFN activated myeloid cells that mostly resolve prior to the influx of virus-specific effector T cells or antibody responses in rhesus macaques.
References: doi: 10.1101/2022.01.06.475282
Contact Info: Daniel Barber: barberd@niaid.nih.gov
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.01.06.475282v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: pigtail macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Washington; Washington National Primate Research Center; HDT Bio
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, immunocompromised animals, SIV, RNA vaccine, immunogenicity, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 alphavirus-derived replicon RNA vaccine formulated with a novel Lipid InOrganic Nanoparticle (LION) emulsion (repRNA-CoV2S) induced robust cellular and humoral immune responses after a single immunization in immunocompromised SIV-infected animals as a highly relevant model of untreated HIV infection in humans.
References: PMID: 34992610 / doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.800723
Contact Info: Deborah Fuller: fullerdh@uw.edu
URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2021.800723/full
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tulane National Primate Research Center; Tulane University School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus genome, gut, virus evolution, primates
Summary of Study: Previous reports that an intact furin cleavage site is important for infection in vivo were confirmed in this study. Additionally, three mutations were identified that may represent an adaptation of SARS-CoV2 to African green monkeys or to NHP generally.
References: PMID: 35062281 / doi: 10.3390/v14010077
Contact Info: Nicholas Maness: nmaness@tulane.edu
URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/14/1/77
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: treatment
NPRC/Institute: Lovelace Biomedical; Gilead Sciences; Inspired - Pulmonary Solutions
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, remdesivir, inhalation, viral load, pharmacokinetics, primates
Summary of Study: Inhaled remdesivir reduced viral load as compared with placebo in African green monkeys infected with SARS-CoV-2.
References: PMID: 34968150 / doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abl8282
Contact Info: Danielle Porter: danielle.porter@gilead.com
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/scitranslmed.abl8282?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: prevention, therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: AstraZeneca; BIOQUAL; Vanderbilt University; USAMRIID
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, monoclonal antibody combination, AZD7442,virus protection, humans, primates
Summary of Study: AZD7442, a monoclonal antibody comprised of AZD8895 and AZD1061, demonstrated potent in vitro neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, in vivo efficacy in both rpevention and treatment settings of SARS-CoV-2 infectoin in NHPs, and extended half-life in NHPs and healthy adult participants.
References: PMID: 35076282 / doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abl8124
Contact Info: Mark Esser: mark.esser@astrazeneca.com
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/scitranslmed.abl8124?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID; University of California, Irvine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Vaccine, route of administration, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: The VSV-SARS2-EBOV vaccine presents a vaccine with a high potential as a boosting option after the already-approved mRNA-based vaccine, because VSV-SARS2-EBOV elicits primarily a humoral response, in contrast to the predominantly T cell-driven immune response after mRNA vaccination.
References: PMID: 35012339 / doi: 10.1128/mbio.03379-21
Contact Info: Andrea Marzi: marzia@niaid.nih.gov
URL: https://journals.asm.org/doi/full/10.1128/mbio.03379-21?rfr_dat=cr_pub%20%200pub…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling, lung and liver pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling of SARS-CoV-2-infected lung and liver tissues showed potentially active protein synthesis and processing, and dysregulated ECM, cell-to-cell junction, and cytoskeleton but no fibrosis in both the infected lung and liver.
References: PMID: 35091530 / doi: 10.1038/s41392-022-00882-7
Contact Info: Shaui-Yao Lu: lushuaiyao-km@163.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41392-022-00882-70pubmed&url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rf…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: City of Hope National Medical Center
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, synthetic multiantigen modified vaccine, COH04S1, immune response, hamsters, primates
Summary of Study: Vaccine candidate C0H04S1 stimulates protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in Syrian hamsters by intramuscular and intranasal vaccination and in non-human primates through two-dose and single-dose regimens.
References: PMID: 35064109 / doi: 10.1038/s41541-022-00436-6
Contact Info: Felix Wussow: fwussow@coh.org
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41541-022-00436-6
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID; University of Oxford
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, age-specific immune responses, viral load, primates
Summary of Study: Despite similar disease outcomes, multiomics profiling suggests that age may delay or impair antiviral cellular immune responses and delay efficient return to homeostasis.
References: PMID: 35039442 / doi: 10.26508/lsa.202101314
Contact Info: Emmie de Wit: emmie.dewit@nih.gov
URL: https://www.life-science-alliance.org/content/5/4/e202101314
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2022
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: NIAID; Gilead Sciences
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Remdesivir, subcutaneous administration, pathology, virus load, primates
Summary of Study: Early subcutaneous administration of remdesivir can protect from lower respiratory tract disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.
References: PMID: 35032523 / doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2022.105246
Contact Info: Emmie de Wit: emmie.dewit@nih.gov
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166354222000146?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID; CureVac AG
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccine, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Prime-boost vaccination with 4 ug of vaccine candidate CV07050101 resulted in limited immune responses in 4 out of 6 non-human primates.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.07.07.451505
Contact Info: Vincent Munster: vincent.munster@nih.gov
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.07.07.451505v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Sanofi Pasteur, GSK
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus genomic variants, vaccine boosters, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: One booster dose of AS03-adjuvanted CoV2 preS dTM, D614 (parental) or B.1.351 (Beta), in monovalent of bivalent formulations, significantly booster pre-existing neutralizing antibodies and elicited high and stable cross-neutralizing antibodies covering the four known SARS-CV-2 variants of concern.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.09.20.461023
Contact Info: Valerie Lecouturier: valerie.lecouturier@sanofi.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.09.20.461023v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Washington Univ SOM, NIAID
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, adenovirus-vectored vaccine, immunogenicity and protective efficacy, primates
Summary of Study: A single intranasal dose of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S induces neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses and limits or prevents infection in the upper and lower respiratory tracts after SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques.
References: PMID: 33754147 / doi: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100230
Contact Info: Heinz Feldmann: feldmannh@niaid.nih.gov; Michael Diamond: diamond@wusm.wustl.edu
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S266637912100046X?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID, Emory University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccine, virus genome variants, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Immunization with two doses of mRNA-1273 achieves effective immunity that rapidly controls lower and upper airway viral replication against the B-1.351 variant in NHP.
References: PMID: 34075375 / doi: 10.1101/2021.05.21.445189
Contact Info: Barney Graham: bgraham@nih.gov; Robert Seder: rseder@mail.nih.gov;
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.05.21.445189v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID/NIH; CureVac AG
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccine candidate, humoral and cellular immune responses, primates
Summary of Study: Prime boost vaccination of rhesus macaques with 4 ug of CV07050101 elicited neither a uniform nor a robust immune response. However, vaccination using 8 ug of the same vaccine was protective in an NHP challenge study.
References: PMID: 34452509 / doi: 10.3390/v13081645
Contact Info: Vincent Munster: vincent.munster@nih.gov
URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/13/8/1645
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID/NIH; CureVac AG
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA-vaccine, spike protein, humoral and cellular immune responses, primates
Summary of Study: Prime-boost vaccination with 4 ug of vaccine candidate CV07050101 resulted in limited mimmune responses in four out of six non-human primates.
References: PMID: 34452509 / doi: 10.3390/v13081645
Contact Info: Vincent Munster: vincent.munster@nih.gov
URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/13/8/1645
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: review
NPRC/Institute: ORIP/NIH
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, primates, animal resources, biosafety
Summary of Study: Sustaining and increasing NHP research capacity will require careful preparation and collaborations to improve existing infrastructure and expand established facilities, expertise, and programs.
References: PMID: 33927412 / doi: 10.1038/s41684-021-00760-9
Contact Info: Sheri Ann Hild: sheri.hild@nih.gov
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41684-021-00760-9
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, review
NPRC/Institute: ORIP/NIH
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, animal models, viruses, resources, primates
Summary of Study: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased the demand for specific-pathogen-free (SPF) nonhuman primates (NHPs) for development of vaccines and therapeutics, thus straining the supply of these animals for biomedical research studies. Non-SPF animals, which are available in greater numbers and include well-characterized primate species, should be considered in lieu of limited SPF animals for appropriate research studies.
References: PMID: 34163043 / doi: 10.1038/s41684-021-008102
Contact Info: Miguel Contreras: miguel.contreras@nih.gov
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41684-021-00810-2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NCI/NIH
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ACE2, type I interferon, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Type I interferon mediates an important innate immune response against viral infection by directly inhibiting viral replication. It also bridges innate to adaptive immunity for long-term protection against viral reinfections.
References: PMID: 34149696 / doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.658428
Contact Info: Yongjun Sui: suiy@mail.nih.gov; Jay Berzofsky: berzofsj@mail.nih.gov
URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2021.658428/full
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, pigtail macaques, african green monkeys, squirrel monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, review
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pulmonary histopathologic characteristics, immunohistochemistry, species comparison, primates
Summary of Study: Histopathology does not appear to be a superior readout for interpretation of vaccine and therapeutic evaluations in the NHPs studied. The recommendation of which NHP is a superior model should be based on virology data as well as further work on genetic factors that contribute to significant disease.
References: PMID: 34963391 / doi: 10.1177/03009858211067468
Contact Info: Chad Clancy: chad.clancy@nih.gov
URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/03009858211067468?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&r…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: review
NPRC/Institute: ORIP/NIH
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, cryopreservation, resources, genetic diversity, primates
Summary of Study: The importance of rhesus macaques as a preclinical model for human diseases and treatment outcomes supports the development of improved cryopreservation methods and routine storage of gametes and embryos.
References: PMID: 34031599 / doi: 10.1038/s41684-021-00792-1
Contact Info: Matthew Arnegard: matthew.arnegard@nih.gov
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41684-021-00792-1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, review
NPRC/Institute: ORIP/NIH
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, resources, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Because the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has significantly increased the demand for rhesus macaques biomedical researchers will need to consider alternative NHP models for COVID-19 research and for other biomedical research studies. The authors suggest alternatives.
References: PMID: 33785923 / doi: 10.1038/s41684-021-00755-6
Contact Info: Michael Chang: chang,mic@mail.nih.gov
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41684-021-00755-6
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: ORIP, NIH
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, the use of primates for COVID research, animal resources
Summary of Study: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased the demand for specific-pathogen-free (SFP) NHPs for development of vaccines and therapeutics. Non-SPF animals, which are available in greater numbers and include well-characterized primate species, should be considered in lieu of limited SPF animals for appropriate research studies.
References: doi: 10.1038/s41684-021-00810-2
Contact Info: Miguel Contreras: miguel.contreras
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41684-021-00810-2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID/NIH
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus variants, pathogenicity, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: A side-by-side comparison of three SARS-CoV-2 varients sugests that ongoing circulation under diverse evolutionary pressures favors transmissibility and immune evasion rather than an increase in intrinsic pathogenicity.
References: PMID: 34382034 / doi: 10.1101/2021.05.07.443115
Contact Info: Emmie de Wit: emmie.dewit@nih.gov
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.05.07.443115v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, baboons, marmosets
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Southwest NPRC
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, young and old animals, Acute respiratory distress, primates
Summary of Study: Acute respiratory distress in macaques and baboons recapitulates the progression of COVID-19 in humans, making them suitable as models to test vaccines and therapies.
References: PMID: 33340034/doi: 10.1038/s41564-020-00841-4
Contact Info: Deepak Kaushal: dkaushal@txbiomed.org
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-020-00841-4
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus genomic variants, virus replication, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: A study of pathogenesis of B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 compared to a SARS-CoV-2 isolate containing the D614G spike substitution showed that B.1.351 was slightly less pathogenic than the other two variants, but there were no differences in virus shedding between the variants that could explain increased transmissibility.
References: PMID: 34678071 / doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abj3627
Contact Info: Emmie de Wit: emmie.dewit@nih.gov
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.abj3627?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=or…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIH
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, single-cell RNA sequencing, lung cells, primates
Summary of Study: Monocyte-derived macrophages recruited to the lungs, rather than tissue-resident alveolar macrophages, were most likely to be responsible for phagocytosis of infected cells and cellular debris early in infection, with their roles switching during clearance of infection.
References: PMID: 33431511 / doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abe8146
Contact Info: Emmie DeWit: dewit@nih.gov
URL: https://stm.sciencemag.org/content/13/578/eabe8146.short
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: baboons
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, review
NPRC/Institute: NIH
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, review, different primate species
Summary of Study: The authors advocate for baboons as a viable alternative to rhesus macaques in SARS-CoV-2 research.
References: PMID: 33785923 / doi:10.1038/s41684-021-00755-6
Contact Info: Michael Chang: changmic@mail.nih.gov
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41684-021-00755-6
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Harvard Medical School
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, AAV-based, single dose vaccine, primates
Summary of Study: Two adeno-associated viral (AAV)-based vaccine candidates demonstrate potent immunogenicity in mouse and NHP models following a single injection. Moreover, the vaccine is stable at room temperature for a least one month and is produced at high yields using established commercial manufacturing processes in the gene therapy industry.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.05.422952
Contact Info: Luk Vandenberghe: luk_vandenberghe@meei.harvard.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.01.05.422952v3
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Sciences
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, combined intratracheal and intranasal inoculation, primates
Summary of Study: The severity of respiratory tract infection enhanced air transmission and induced wide and severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lungs, suggesting the occurrence of more severe infectiousness and lung injury in SARS-CoV-2 patients with nasal infection.
References: PMID: 33587263 / doi: 10.1007/s11427-020-1877-4
Contact Info: Yong-Tang Zheng: zhengyt@mail.kiz.ac.cn
URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11427-020-1877-4
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Sciences
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, interferon (IFN)-armed receptor-binding domain, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: The pan-epitope modified human I-R-F (I-P-R-F) vaccine provides rapid and complete protection throughout the upper and lower respiratory tracts against a high-dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques.
References: doi: 10.1038/s41422-021-00531-8
Contact Info: Hua Peng: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41422-021-00531-8/email/correspondent/c3/new
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41422-021-00531-8
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Sciences
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, combined intratracheal and intranasal inoculation, virus load, primates
Summary of Study: Nasal infection may be regarded as an important index to assess the severity of COVID-19. Furthermore, treatments focused on nasal infection, like hypertonic saline nasal irrigation and gargling, should be considered as a therapeutic option for COVID-19.
References: PMID: 33587263 / doi: 10.1007/s11427-020-1877-4
Contact Info: Yong-Tang Zheng: zhengyt@mail.kiz.ac.cn
URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11427-020-1877-4
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Texas Christian University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, young and aged animals, viral dynamics, antiviral treatment, primates
Summary of Study: This study finds the viral dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 between young and aged animals and has shown that these differrences should be considered when considering antiviral treatment.
References: PMID: 34804559 / doi: 10.1098/rsos.202345
Contact Info: Hana Dobrovolny: h.dobrovolny@tcu.edu
URL: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsos.202345?rfr_dat=cr_pub%2…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID, Emory University, Moderna
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccine, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Immunization with two doses of mRNA-1273 achieves effective immunity that rapidly controls lower and upper airway viral replication against the B.1.351 variant in NHP.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.05.21.445189
Contact Info: Barney Graham: bgraham@nih.gov; Robert Seder: rseder@mail.nih.gov;
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.05.21.445189v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: prevention
NPRC/Institute: Beijing DanXu Biopharmaceuticals
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, monoclonal antibody, ELISA assay, pharmacokinetic, primates
Summary of Study: In cynomolgus monkeys, BD-604 (a fully human monoclonal antibody) possesses pharmacokinetic properties similar to natural IgGs.
References: PMID: 34215019 / doi: 10.1002/dta.3122
Contact Info: Xu Zhang: janet_xu_zhang@singlomics.com
URL: https://analyticalsciencejournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dta.3122
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Weill Cornell Medical College
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, vaccines, antibody and T cell immunogenicity, review, primates
Summary of Study: This review article looks at what is known of the antibody and T cell immunogenicity of vaccines that have advanced to human clinical trials. Includes summary of press releases on the outcomes of vaccine efficacy trials.
References: PMID: 33608249 / doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abe8065
Contact Info: John P. Moore: jpm2003@med.cornell.edu
URL: https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/7/12/eabe8065
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine, review
NPRC/Institute: Weill Cornell Medical College
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, antibody and T cell immunogenicity, testing vaccines in humans and primates, review
Summary of Study: This review article summaries what is known of the antibody and T cell immunogenicity of multiple preventive vaccines in NHPs and humans.
References: PMID: 33608249 / doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abe8065
Contact Info: John Moore: jpm2003@med.cornell.edu
URL: https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/7/12/eabe8065
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Duke Human Vaccine Institute
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, multimeric receptor binding domain nanoparticle, cross-neutralizing antibody, virus variants, primates
Summary of Study: This study demonstrates the ability of a SARS-CoV-2 RBD 24-mer subunit nanoparticle vaccine to elicit potent cross-neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7. as well as SARS-related bat betaCoVs.
References: PMID: 33619494 / doi: 10.1101/2021.02.17.431492
Contact Info: Kevin Saunders: kevin.saunders@duke.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.17.431492v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, review
NPRC/Institute: Chungbuk National University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, several animal species, transduction, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Review of various animal models employed for SARS-CoV-2 infection studies that outlines their individual strengths and limitations for use in studies aimed at increasing understanding of coronavirus pathogenesis.
References: PMID: 33996168 / doi: 10.4110/in.2021.21.e12
Contact Info: Young Ki Choi: choiki55@CHUNGBUK.AC.KR
URL: https://immunenetwork.org/DOIx.php?id=10.4110/in.2021.21.e12
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: University of Texas Medical Branch
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, convalescent sera, primates
Summary of Study: Convalescent plasma therapy in humans may be an effective strategy provided that donor sera contain high anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing titers given in early states of the disease.
References: PMID: 33662255 / doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108837
Contact Info: Thomas W. Geisbert:
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211124721001510?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Texas Medical Branch
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, apoptosis, lung tissues, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Significant increases in apoptotic signals in postmortem lung sections from COVID-19 patients and lungs of NHPs infected with SARS-CoV-2 on day 21 p.i.
References: PMID: 33922476 / doi: 10.3390/pathogens10050509
Contact Info: Paul Boor: pboor@utmb.edu; Jason Comer: jscomer@utmb.edu; Bin Gong: bigong@utmb.edu
URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0817/10/5/509
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: USC, , UCLA, City of Hope, Bioqual
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pancreatic beta cells, toxicity, metabolism, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 infection enhances beta cell stress that may compromise beta-cell function beyond the duration of the disease course, raising the possibility that the beta cell stress and injury may have clinical implications to the long-term future health of patients that have recovered from COVID19.
References: PMID: 34312617 / doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-592374/v1
Contact Info: Senta Georgia: sgeorgia@chla.usc.edu
URL: https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-592374/v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaque, african green monkeys, cynomolgus macaques, marmosets
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Fudan University, Shanghai, China
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, review, transmission, pathogenicity, therapeutics, ferrets, minks, tree shrews, primates
Summary of Study: Animal models of SARS-CoV-2 are reviewed and compared.
References: PMID: 34531831 / doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.626553
Contact Info: Youhua Xie: yhxie@fudan.edu.cn
URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2021.626553/full
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Copycat Sciences; Sporos Bioventures
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, redelivery, analysis of the preclinical data and clinical efficacy, primates
Summary of Study: The gap between the strong preclinical data with remdesivir (RDV) across many virus models and its questionable clinical activitiy suggests that assumptions are being made at the preclinical level that do not reflect the conditions observed in patients.
References: PMID: 34252308 / doi: 10.1128/AAC.01117-21
Contact Info: Victoria Yan: victoria.yan@copycatsciences.com
URL: https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/AAC.01117-21?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Duke University, NIAID, 3 M Company
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, receptor binding domain nanoparticle, vaccination, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: An RBD-scNP vaccine induced robust protective immunity for SARS-CoV-2 replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract. This vaccine represents a platform for producing a pancoronavirus vaccine that could prevent, rapidly temper, or extinguish the next spillover of a coronavirus into humans.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.02.17.431492
Contact Info: Kevin Saunders: kevin.saunders@duke.edu; Barton Haynes: barton.haynes@duke.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.17.431492v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques, african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics, vaccine, review
NPRC/Institute: Emory University School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, several animal species, anti-viral therapeutic, vaccine development, primates
Summary of Study: Summarizing key features, strengths and weaknesses of animal models for SARS-CoV-2, focusing on their application in anti-viral therapeutic and vaccine development.
References: PMID: 33906125 / doi: 10.1016/j.coviro.2021.03.009
Contact Info: Anice Lowen: anice.lowen@emory.edu
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1879625721000316?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, neurotropism, central neural system, virus transduction, primates
Summary of Study: The olfactory route is a potential way for SARS-CoV-2 to invade the central nervous system of rhesus monkeys.
References: PMID: 33895780 / doi: 10.1038/s41392-021-00591-7
Contact Info: Xiaozhong Peng: pengxiaozhong@pumc.edu.cn; Shuaiyao Lu: lushuaiyao-km@163.com; Hongqi Liu: lhq@imbcams.com.cn
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41392-021-00591-7
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Wheaten College, Cornell University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus susceptibility, animal welfare, hamsters, ferrets, primates
Summary of Study: Paper reviews virus susceptibilities in species with frequent human contact, and factors that are best predictors of virus susceptibility.
References: PMID: 34359172 / doi: 10.3390/ani11072044
Contact Info: Kathleen Morgan: kmorgan@wheatoncollege.edu
URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/11/7/2044
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, inactivated vaccines, antibody-dependent enhancement, immunopathology, primates
Summary of Study: Results show that in the absence of cellular immunity, passive infusion of subneutralizing or nonneutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies could still provide some level of protection against infection upon challenge, and no low-level antibody-enhanced infection was observed.
References: PMID: 34736354 / doi: 10.1080/22221751.2021.2002670
Contact Info: Qihan Li: liqihan@imbcams.com.cn; Longding Liu: longdingliu@imbcams.com.cn; Cunbao Liu: cunbao_liu@163.com
URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/22221751.2021.2002670
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, humoral immune response, recombinant full-length spike glycoprotein (NVX-CoV2373), primates
Summary of Study: Deep profiling of the humoral immune response in a cohort of non-human primates immunized with one or two doses of 5 or 25 ug of a stabilized recombinant full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein with 50 ug Matrix-M adjuvant suggests that a single dose of may prevent disease, but that two doses may be essential to block further transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.
References: PMID: 33619473 / doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-200342/v1
Contact Info: Galit Alter: galter@mgh.harvard.edu
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899467/pdf/nihpp-rs200342v1.pdf
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Oyster Point Pharma; Trudeau Institute
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, varenicline tartrate, invitro and in vivo studies, virus infection, primates
Summary of Study: The nAChR agonist varenicline has the potential to interact with and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.06.29.450426
Contact Info: Jeffrey Nau: jnau@oysterpointrx.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.06.29.450426v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Perelman School of Medicine (UPenn),
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, clinical and pathologic consequences, ACE2 decoy protein, primates
Summary of Study: The ACE2 decoy (soluble forms of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) gene therapy approach could be effectively deployed to vulnerable populations in the COVID-19 pandemic and potentially to broader populations at the outset of future coronavirus pandemics.
References: PMID: 34265018 / doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009544
Contact Info: James Wilson: wilsonjm@upenn.edu
URL: https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1009544
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Emory NPRC, NIH, Ragon Institute, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, adjuvanted soluble protein vaccines, binding and functional neutralization assays and systems serology, primates
Summary of Study: Potent serum antibody responses are induced by soluble S trimers formulated with the oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant AS03, which conferred protection in the upper and lower airways of rhesus macaques following SARS-CoV-2 challenge.
References: PMID: 33688652 / doi: 10.1101/2021.03.02.433390
Contact Info: Robert Seder: rseder@mail.nih.gov
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33688652/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Karolinska Institute, University of Cape Town
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, spike protein subunit vaccine, mice and primates, immune response
Summary of Study: Adjuvanted protein immunization with soluble SARS-CoV-2 Spike trimers, stabilized in prefusion conformation, results in potent antibody responses in mice and rhesus macaques, with neutralizing antibody titers exceeding those typically measured in SARS-CoV-2 seropositive humans by more than one order of magnitude.
References: PMID: 33842900 / doi: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.10052
Contact Info: Ben Murrell: benjamin.murrell@ki.se; Daniel Sheward: daniel.sheward@ki.se, Gunilla Karlsson Hedestam: gunilla.karlsson.hedestam@ki.se
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666379121000689?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: City of Hope National Medical Center; Bioqual
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, vaccine efficacy, humoral and cellular immune responses, primates
Summary of Study: COH04S1, a synthetic multiantigen Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that co-expresses spike and nucleocapsid antigens, demonstrated protection in animal models through different vaccination routes and dose regimens, complementing ongoing investigation of this multiantigen SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in clinical trials.
References: PMID: 34545366 / doi: 10.1101/2021.09.15.460487
Contact Info: Felix Wussow: fwussow@coh.org
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.09.15.460487v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tulane NPRC, North Carolina State University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, portable, ultrasensitive saliva-based virus assay, primates
Summary of Study: CRISPR-FDS determined that mean SARS-Cov-2 RNA levels were 3.6 fold to 124-fold higher, and more stable, in oropharyngeal versus nasal swab samples from nonhuman primates at all time points after infection, suggesting that saliva may represent a more robust diagnostic sample than nasal swabs both early and later in infection.
References: PMID: 33310733 / doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abe3703
Contact Info: Tony Hu: tonyhu@tulane.edu
URL: https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/7/2/eabe3703
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Inovio Pharmaceuticals; The Wistar Institute
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, DNA vaccine candidate, immunogenicity, boost, primates
Summary of Study: Data illustrate the durability of immunity following vaccination with synthetic DNA vaccine candidates INO-4800 or INP-4802 and additional support the use of either INO-4800 or INP-4802 in prime-boost regimens.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.10.27.466163
Contact Info: Kate Broderick: kate.broderick@inovio.com; David Weiner: dweiner@wistar.org
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.10.27.466163v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Dalhousie University; University of Calgary
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, anthropozoonosis, virus transmission between the sanimal species, primates
Summary of Study: While the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via wastewater is low, tracing of viral RNA in wastewater does provide a unique testing approach to help protect NHPs at zoos and wildlife sanctuaries.
References: PMID: 34662463 / doi: 10.1002/ajp.23340
Contact Info: Graham Dellaire: dellaire@dal.ca
URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajp.23340
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: pigtail macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Melbourne, Monash University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, prime-boost protein subunit vaccine, mice and primates
Summary of Study: Both S and RBD vaccines are comparably immunogenic and produced strong serological neutralizing responses in pig-tailed macaques. Overall, immunization with recombinant S immunogens reliably elicits potentially protective humoral immunity at levels in excess of those observed in convalescent human, confirming recombinant S proteins as promising vaccine candidates.
References: PMID: 33658497 / doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-21665-8
Contact Info: Stephen Kent: skent@unimelb.edu.au
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-21665-8
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Texas Medical Branch, Pfizer
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, vaccine-elicited immunity, virus variant, primates
Summary of Study: The D614G mutation modestly reduced SARS-CoV-2 neutralization by BNT162b2 vaccine-elicited mouse, rhesus, and human sera, concurring with the 95% vaccine efficacy observed in clinical trial.
References: PMID: 33767200 / doi: 10.1038/s41541-021-00313-8
Contact Info: Philip Dormitzer: philip,dormitzer@pfizer.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41541-021-00313-8
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Iowa; University of Florida
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, meta analysis, airway mucus, mucin glycoproteins, inflammation, primates
Summary of Study: Ferrets, nonhuman primates, and cats may have advantages over other models to investigate mucus in COVID-19.
References: PMID: 34794359 / doi: 10.1177/03009858211058837
Contact Info: not available
URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/03009858211058837?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&r…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: pigtail macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: nanogen Pharmaceutical Biotechnology JSC
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, vaccine candidate, receptor-binding domain, immune response, hamsters, mice, primates
Summary of Study: Nanocovax, a vaccine candidate based on recombinant protein production of the extracellular (soluble) portion of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2, induced high levels of S protein-specific IgG, as well as neutralizing antibody in three animal models (mice, Syrian hamsters, and Macaca leonina (Northern pig-tailed macaque).
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.07.20.453162
Contact Info: Do Minh Si: minhsi@nanogenpharma.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.07.20.453162v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, CD4 T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, primates
Summary of Study: SARC-CoV-2 infection in rhesus macaques, either infused with convalescent plasma, normal plasma, or receiving no infusion showed induction of germinal center (GC) responses.
References: PMID: 33483492 / doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-20642-x
Contact Info: Koen Van Rompay: kkvanrompay@ucdavis.edu; Smita Iyer: smiyer@ucdavis.edu
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-20642-x
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, pigtail macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Washington, UNC, Chapel Hill and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, multivalent receptor-binding domain nanoparticle vaccine, immune response, variants, mice and primates
Summary of Study: Mosaic and cocktail sarbecovirus RBD-NPs elicit broad and protective Ab responses against heterologous sarbecovirus challenge, which could represent the next generation of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.
References: PMID: 33758839 / doi: 10.1101/2021.03.15.435528
Contact Info: Neil King: neil@ipd.uw.edu; David Veesler: dveesler@uw.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.03.15.435528v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: The Wistar Institute; Inovio Pharmaceuticals; Bioqual
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, DNA vaccine, immunogenicity, immune response, adaptive immune response, primates
Summary of Study: INO-4800, an intradermal-delivered SARS-CoV-2 spike DNA vaccine, induced both humoral and cellular arms of the adaptive immune system.
References: PMID: 34604818 / doi: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100420
Contact Info: Kate Broderick: kate.broderick@inovio.com; David Weiner: dweiner@wistar.org
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666379121002822?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, T-cell populations, primates
Summary of Study: Results suggest that the peripheral T lymphocyte population is associated with pneumonia severity in cynomolgus monkeys experimentally infected with SARS-CoV-2.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.07.425698
Contact Info: Noriyo Nagata: nnagata@nih.go.jp
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.01.07.425698v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Clover Biopharmaceuticals, Kunming Institute of Zoology
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, S-Trimer, subunit vaccine candidate, immunogenicity, efficacy, primates
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques immunized with adjuvanted S-Trimer were protected from SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Trimer-Tag may be an important platform technology for scalable production and rapid development of safe and effective subunit vaccines against current and future emerging RNA viruses.
References: PMID: 33649323 / doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-21634-1
Contact Info: Peng Liang: liang.peng@cloverbiopharma.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-21634-1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Duke University, UNC Chapel Hill, NIAID, Ragon Inst.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing antibodies, cryo-electron microscopy, binding, inflammation, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 RBD and NTD antibodies can increase infection in vitro, but either protect or do not increase coronavirus replication in mouse and monkey models in vivo.
References: PMID: 33442694 / doi: 10.1101/2020.12.31.424729
Contact Info: Kevin Saunders: kevin.saunders@duke.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.31.424729v2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Unviersity of Hawaii, Bioqual, Inc., Soligenix, Inc.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, recombinant subunit protein vaccine, spike protein, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: A recombinant subunit protein forumulated with CoVaccine HT adjuvant induces superior immunity than natural infection and reduces viral load while protecting cynomolgus macaques from COVID-19-like disease caused by late SARS-CoV-2 P.1 (Gamma) challenge.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.09.24.461759
Contact Info: Axel Lehrer: lehrer@hawaii.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.09.24.461759v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, MIT, Harvard
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, DNA- and Ad26-based vaccines, serum profiles, primates
Summary of Study: Data highlight the similarities between infection and vaccine induced humoral immunity for SARS-Cov-2 and cross-reactivity of these responses to other CoVs.
References: PMID: 33692201 / doi: 10.1128/JVI.00117-21
Contact Info: Dan Barouch: dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu
URL: https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/JVI.00117-21?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: baboons
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Maryland School of Medicine; Noravax
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, receptor-binding domain subunit vaccine, immune response, mice and primates
Summary of Study: Positive results in non-human primates suggest the feasibility of utilizing a B.1.351 Spike directed variant vaccine as a booster after previous immunization with a vaccine directed toward the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.06.08.447631
Contact Info: Matthew Frieman: mfrieman@som.umaryland.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.06.08.447631v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Univ. of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, D614G Spike Mutation, Vaccinated and immune sera, neutralization, primates
Summary of Study: Vaccinated NHPs using the nucleoside-modified mRNA-LNP vaccine platform encoding four differentSARS-CoV-2 spike immunogens generate antibody responses that not only recognize the G614 mutation that has taken over the pandemic, but also have stronger titers of neutralization to this virus variant.
References: PMID: 33306985/doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.11.012
Contact Info: Drew Weissman (no contact information)
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S193131282030634X?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Cynomolgus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2 showed body temperature rises and X-ray radiographic pneumonia without life-threatening clinical signs of disease. Because of similar symptoms to approximately 80% of patients, cynomolgus macaques are appropriate to extrapolate the efficacy of vaccines and antiviral drugs for humans.
References: PMID: 33412411/doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2020.12.013
Contact Info: Yasushi Itoh (no contact information)
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042682220302609?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Universite de Paris, Institut Pasteur and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mathematical model, viral dynamics, immune response, viral clearance, primates
Summary of Study: Results provide estimates of SARS-CoV-2 viral kinetic parameters in an experimental model of mild infection and they provide means to assess the efficacy of future antiviral treatments.
References: PMID: 33730053 / doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008785
Contact Info: Antonio Goncalves: antonio.goncalves@inserm.fr
URL: https://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008785
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID; University of Colorado School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, role of T cells in recovery, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Results suggest that T cells are not critical for recovery from acute SARS-CoV-2 infections in the rhesus macaque nodel (which develop only mild COVID-19, similar to most humans), pointing toward B cell responses and antibodies as the essential mediators of protection from re-exposure.
References: PMID: 34311582 / doi: 10.1128/mBio.01503-21
Contact Info: Kim Hasenkrug: khasenkrug@nih.gov
URL: https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/mBio.01503-21
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, review
NPRC/Institute: Indian Veterinary Research Institute and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, domestic and wild animal species, public health
Summary of Study: This review analyzes the current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 natural infection in domestic and wild animal species and their possible implications on public health.
References: PMID: 33892621 / doi: 10.1080/01652176/2021.1921311
Contact Info: Khan Sharun: sharunkhansk@gmail.com; Kuldeep Dhama: kdhama@rediffmail.com
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128218/pdf/TVEQ_41_1921311.pdf
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: pigtail macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2-infected northern pig-tailed macaques could be considered as a critically ill animal model in COVID-19 research.
References: PMID: 33998182 / doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.334
Contact Info: Yong-Tang Zheng: zhengyt@mail.kiz.ac.cn
URL: http://www.zoores.ac.cn/article/doi/10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.334
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Karolinska Institutet; University of Cape Town
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus genomic variants, antigenic sin, boost, passive immunization, mice, primates
Summary of Study: A single dose of adjuvanted beta variant receptor binding domain (RBD) protein broadens neutralizing antibody responses to heterologous VOCs.
References: PMID: 34723224 / doi: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100450
Contact Info: Daniel Sheward: daniel.sheward@ki.se; Gunilla Karlsson Hedestam: gunilla.karlsson.hedestam@ki.se; Ben Murrell: benjamin.murrell@ki.se
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666379121003189?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: olive baboons
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Novavax, University of Maryland, University of Oklahoma, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, subunit vaccine (NVX-CoV2373), mice and primates
Summary of Study: Administering a subunit vaccine (NVX-CoV2373) constructed from the full-length S-protein, with Matrix-M adjuvant in a nonhuman primate model induces B- and T-cell responses, hACE2-receptor-blocking antibodies, and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. These results support the clinical development of the NVX-C0V2373 vaccine for prevention of COVID-19.
References: PMID: 33446655 / doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-20653-8
Contact Info: Gale Smith: gsmith@novavax.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-20653-8
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys, rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, comparative evaluation of disease progression in three primate species
Summary of Study: In addition to African green monkeys, macaques can be successfully infected by airborne SARS-CoV-2, providing viable macaque natural transmission models for medical countermeasure evaluation.
References: PMID: 33529233 / doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246366
Contact Info: Sara Johnston: sara.c.johnston2.civ@mail.mil; Aysegul Nalca: aysegul.nalca.civ@mail.mil
URL: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246366
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 expression, transcription factor AhR, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Data in this study show that the transcription factor AhR is able to bind the promoter of the ACE2 gene, thus promoting ACE2 expression and augmenting the subsequent pathology in SARS-CoV-2-infected lungs.
References: PMID: 33795851 / doi: 10.1038/s41423-021-00672-1
Contact Info: Chuan Qin: qinchuan@pumc.edu.cn; Bo Huang: tjhuangbo@hotmail.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41423-021-00672-1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques, african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, review
NPRC/Institute: Johns Hopkins School of Medicine; Yale University School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, several animal species, immunological response, primates
Summary of Study: This review discusses small and large animal model studies previously used in SARS-CoV-2 research that may be useful in elucidating the immunological contributions to hallmark syndromes observed with COVID-19.
References: PMID: 33914873 / doi: 10.1093/ilar/ilab010
Contact Info: Rebecca Veenhuis: rterill1@jhmi.edu
URL: https://academic.oup.com/ilarjournal/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ilar/ilab010/62…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Oxford, Public Health England, The Pirbright Institute
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, vaccine, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Lung pathology caused by SARS-CoV-2 meiated pneumonia is reduced in rhesus macaques by prior vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, which induced neutralising antibody responses after a single intramuscular administration.
References: PMID: 34312487 / doi: 10.1038/s42003-021-02443-0
Contact Info: Sarah Gilbert: sarah.gilbert@ndm.ox.ac.uk
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-021-02443-0
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Duke NUS Medical School, Singapore; Duke University Medical School
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, lung inflammation, pathology, mice and primates
Summary of Study: Widespread degranulation of mast cells (MCs) during acute and unresolved airway inflammation in SARS-CoV-2-infected mice and non-human primates supports the association of MC activation with severe COVID-19 and suggests potential strategies for intervention.
References: PMID: 34100020 / doi: 10.1101.2021.05.31.21255594
Contact Info: Ashley St. John: ashley.st.john@duke.nus.edu.sg
URL: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.05.31.21255594v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Virology
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate, immunogenicity, efficacy, primates
Summary of Study: A two-dose regimen of vaccine candidate BBV152 with adjuvant B induces a significant immune response and provides effective protection in rhesus macaques challenged with SARS-CoV-2.
References: PMID: 33654090 / doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-21639-w
Contact Info: Balram Bhargava: balrambhargava@yahoo.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-21639-w
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Public Health England & Welcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pathogenicity, comparative studies, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 replicates in the upper and lower respiratory tract and causes pulmonary lesions in both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. This provides convincing evidence that both macaque species authentically represent mild to moderate forms of COVID-19 observed in the majority of the human populations and both species can e used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of interventions proposed against SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, accessing cynomolgus macaques will greatly alleviate the pressures on current rhesus stocks.
References: PMID: 33627662 / doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-21389-9
Contact Info: Miles Carroll: miles.carroll@phe.gov.uk
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-21389-9
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Inserm, CEA, Paris, France; University of Amsterdam; and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, prophylactic and therapeutic effect of COVA1-18 in vivo, several species, primates
Summary of Study: COVA1-18, a neutralizing antibody isolated from a convalescent patient and highly potent against the B.1.1.7 isolate, had very strong antiviral activity in the upper respiratory compartments of cynomolgus macaques, with an estimated reduction in viral infectivity of more than 95%, and prevented lymphopenia and extensive lung lesions.
References: PMID: 33619476 / doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-235272/v1
Contact Info: Roger LeGrand: roger.le-grand@cea.fr; MJ Van Gils: m.j.vangils@amsterdamumc.nl
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899470/pdf/nihpp-rs235272v1.pdf
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Tulane NPRC, Emory NPRC, New Iberia Research Center, Stanford
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, subunit nanoparticle vaccine, primates
Summary of Study: These data reveal the promising performance of several adjuvants including AS03 and CpG 1018 (with Alum), which have been used in licensed vaccines, when used in conjunction with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD-NP immunogen.
References: PMID: 33594366 / doi: 10.1101/2021.02.10.430696
Contact Info: Bali Pulendran: bpulend@stanford.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.10.430696v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC); Utrecht University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, chest CT, ultrasound, pulmonary lesions, primates
Summary of Study: As has been observed in humans, the sensitivity of lung ultrasound (LUS) is high though the diagnostic efficacy or mild-to-moderate disease is relatively low. The low efficacy outweighs the advantages of LUS over CT (i.e. no need to transport the animals and the absence of ionizing radiation). For this reason, CT is still the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis, monitoring, and longitudinal assessment of a SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHPs.
References: PMID: 34778433 / doi: 10.3389/fvets.2021.748635
Contact Info: Marieke Stammes: stammes@bprc.nl
URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2021.748635/full
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Public Health England, Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Oxford University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, synthetic DNA vaccine candidate, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: The results in a stringent preclinical SARS-CoV-2 animal model provide further support for the efficacy and safety of the synthetic DNA vaccine INO-4800 as a prophylatic countermeasure against COVID-19.
References: PMID: 34253420 / doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.06.057
Contact Info: Kate Broderick (Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Miles Carroll (Public Health England)
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X21008070?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: CAS Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Beijing, China
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, therapeutics, human monoclonal antibody, primates
Summary of Study: The authors identify and characterize a potent human monoclonal antibody, HB27, that blocks SARS-CoV-2 attachment to its cellular receptor at sub-nM concentrations. Rhesus macaques showed no obvious adverse events when they received a 10-fold effective dose. These results suggest that HB27 is a promising candidate for COVID-19 immuno-therapies.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.24.393629
Contact Info: Xiangxi Wang: xiangxi@idp.ac.cn; Cheng-Feng Qin: qincf@bmi.ac.cn
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.24.393629v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques, pigtail macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: National Institute of Animal Biotechnology, Telangana, India
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 receptor of various species, several species.
Summary of Study: The interaction of SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain with its receptor (ACE2) in different hosts was evaluated to understand and predict viral entry. Most of the species considered in this study showed high probability of viral entry and should be followed to determine their ability to act as carriers and/or disseminators.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.08.084327
Contact Info: Ravi Kumar Gandham: ravigandham@niab.org.in
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.08.084327v4
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NCI/NIH; University of Maryland, BIOQUAL, NIAID and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, adjuvanted subunit vaccines, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Mucosal vaccine efficiently cleared virus in the nasal cavity and may act as a potent complementary reinforcing boost for conventional systemic vaccines to provide overall better protection.
References: PMID: 33908897 / doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.148494
Contact Info: Yongjun Sui: suiy@mail.nih.gov; Jay Berzofsky: berzofsj@mail.nih.gov
URL: https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/148494
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID, Emory University, Duke University, Moderna, Bioqual
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccine, lipid nanoparticles, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced antibody responses are a mechanistic correlate of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHP.
References: PMID: 33907752 / doi: 10.1101/2021.04.20.44067
Contact Info: Robert Seder: rseder@mail.nih.gov; Barney Graham: bgraham@nih.gov
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.04.20.440647v2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Nankai University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, monoclonal antibodies, structure analysis, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: The engineered antibody P4A1 (originally identified from COVID-19 convalescent patients) exhibits an optimized pharmacokinetic and safety profile, and results in complete viral clearance in a rhesus monkey model of COVID-19 following a single injection.
References: PMID: 33976198 / doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-22926-2
Contact Info: Yu Guo: guoyu@nankai.edu.cn; Hongkai Zhang: hongkai@nankai.edu.cn
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-22926-2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Institute of Human Virology, Zhongshan School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, convalescent sera, receptor-binding domain based nanoparticles, virus variants, primates
Summary of Study: Results show that as mutations accumulate in the RBD, spike proteins may acquire an antigenic shift that enable SARS-CoV-2 variants to eventually resist the current vaccines. Intensive monitoring of virus mutations and timely adjustment of the designed vaccines are required to control the viral pandemic.
References: PMID: 33580167 / doi: 10.1038/s41423-021-00641-8
Contact Info: Xin He: hexin59@mail.sysu.edu.cn
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41423-021-00641-8
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, review
NPRC/Institute: Department of Virology, Aggeu Magalhaes Institute, Brazil
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, in vitro and in vivo models, several animal species, including primates, review
Summary of Study: This review article summarizes the main models of SARS-CoV-2 infection developed so far and discusses their advantages, drawbacks and main uses.
References: PMID: 33673614 / doi: 10.3390/v13030379
Contact Info: Lindomar Pena: lindomar.pena@cpqam.fiocruz.br
URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/13/3/379/htm
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques, african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Yale School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ACE2, several animal species, immine response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: This review summarized key clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of human COVID-19, followed by a comparison with spontaneous and genetically altered animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
References: PMID: 33836527 / doi: 10.1093/ilar/ilab0071
Contact Info: Caroline Zeiss: caroline.zeiss@yale.edu
URL: https://academic.oup.com/ilarjournal/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ilar/ilab007/62…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Gritstone Bio., Inc.; Battelle Biomedical Research Center
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, prime-boost vaccination, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Data demonstrate that the Self-amplifying mRNA (SAM) vaccine platform can drive balanced T- and B-cell responses for optimal protective immunity at low doses, offering an additional attractive vaccine platform in the fight against current and emerging infectious pathogens.
References: doi:10.1101/2021.11.08.467773
Contact Info: Karin Jooss: kjooss@gritstone.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.11.08.467773v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Harvard Univ., MIT, Tulane National Primate Research Center
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, respiratory droplet generation and exhalation, primates
Summary of Study: The proportion of small respiratory droplets (the majority of particles exhaled in all subjects) increased at the peak of COVID-19 infection in NHPs. This confirms a previously published observation from the exhaled aerosol profile of a single COVID-19 positive human subject, and suggests that, at peak infection, there may be an elevated risk of the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by way of the very small droplets that transmit through conventional masks and travers distances far exceeding the conventional social distance of 2 m.
References: PMID: 33563754 / doi: 10.1073/pnas.2021830118
Contact Info: David Edwards: dedwards@seas.harvard.edu; Chad Roy: croy@tulane.edu
URL: https://www.pnas.org/content/118/8/e2021830118.long
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID/NIH; The Jenner Institute at the University of Oxford
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, multiomics profiling, young and old animals, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Despite similar disease outcomes, multi-omics profiling in SARS-CoV-2-infected rhesus macaques suggests that age may delay or impair the induction of anti-viral cellular immune responses and delay efficient return to immune homeostasis following acute infection.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.09.08.459430
Contact Info: Emmie de Wit: emmie.dewit@nih.gov
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.09.08.459430v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Trinomab Biotech Co.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ferritin nanoparticles, receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Self-assembling nanoparticle vaccines displaying the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 were prepared, and the vaccine candidate elicited obust humoral and T cell responses and protected the rhesus monkeys from infection with short-term shedding and only minor pathological damage.
References: PMID: 33951913 / doi: 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.1c00208
Contact Info: Longding Liu: longdingl@gmail.com; Qihan Li: liqihan@imbcams.com.cn; Zhanlong He: hzl@imbcams.com.cn
URL: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.1c00208
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & U. Mass.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, DNA and protein vaccine combination, primates
Summary of Study: The novel combination of a DNA vaccine encoding the full-length Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 and a recombinant S1 protein vaccine elicited full protection against the challenge of SARS-CoV-2 in an NHP model.
References: PMID: 33555988 / doi: 10.1080/22221751.2021.1887767
Contact Info: Wei Cun: cun@imbcams.com.cn / Shan Lu: shan.lu@umassmed.edu
URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/22221751.2021.1887767
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: lemurs, lorises
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Univ. of Calgary, Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, New York Univ., and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 gene and protein sequences, several species, primates
Summary of Study: Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 is not equal across non-human primates. This study suggests that several clades of lemurs have a high potential susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. As they are among the primates at highest risk of extinction globally, further understanding of their risk should be a conservation priority. All feasible actions should be taken to limit their exposure to SARS-CoV-2.
References: PMID: 33564767 / doi: 10.1101/2021.02.03.429540
Contact Info: James Higham: jhigham@nyu.edu; Amanda Melin: amanda.melin@ucalgary.ca
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.03.429540v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, viral RNA, evolution, genomic variants, primates
Summary of Study: Study confirmed importance of an intact furin cleavage site for SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo; a new SARS-CoV-2 strain exclusive to the African green monkey species was identified.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.08.22.457295
Contact Info: Nicolas Maness: nmaness@tulane.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.08.22.457295v1.full
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID/NIH; Emory University; Duke University Medical Center; Moderna; BIOQUAL
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA-vaccine, immune response, hamsters, primates
Summary of Study: mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced antibody responses are a mechanistic correlate of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHP.
References: PMID: 34529476 / doi: 10.1126/science.abj0299
Contact Info: Barney Graham: bgraham@nih.gov; Robert Seder: rseder@mail.nih.gov
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abj0299?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=o…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Liverpool, Public Health England, University of Bristol, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, the leader-transcriptional regulatory sequence gene junction, high resolution sequencing, primates
Summary of Study: LeTRS, a bioinformatics tool, identified known leader-TRS-junctions and identified novel species that were common across different species. The data indicated multi-phasic abundance of sgmRNAs in two different NHP models, with spikes in sgmRNA abundance reflected in human samples, and therefore has implications for transmission models and nucleic acid-based diagnostics.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.03.03.433753
Contact Info: Julian Hiscox: julian.hiscox@liverpool.ac.uk
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.03.03.433753v2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: VaxiGen, Inc., Genexine, Inc., Korea National Primate Research Centre, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, DNA-based vaccine, mice and primates, immune response
Summary of Study: A synthetic soluble SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) DNA-based vaccine candidate, GX-19, provides a durable protective immune response in rhesus macaques, supporting further development of GX-19 as a vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2.
References: PMID: 33804981 / doi: 10.3390/vaccines9040307
Contact Info: Yong Bok Seo: ybseo@slvaxigen.com; You Suk Suh: yssuh@genexine.com; Jung Joo Hong: hong75@kribb.re.kr
URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/9/4/307
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Rocky Mountain Laboratories/NIAID/NIH, University of Colorado School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, T cells, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: T-cells play a role in the recovery of rhesus macaques from acute SARS-CoV-2 infections, although their depletion does not induce severe disease, and T cells do not account for the natural resistance of rhesus macaques to severed COVID-19. Neither primed CD4+ or CD8+ T cells appeared critical for immunoglobulin class switching, the development of immunological memory or protection from a second infection.
References: PMID: 33821272 / doi: 10.1101/2021.04.02.438262
Contact Info: Kim Hasenkrug: khasenkrug@nih.gov
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.04.02.438262v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID; Emory University; BIOQUAL, Inc.; Moderna, Inc.; Johns Hopkins University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus genomic variants, boost, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Homologous mRNA-1273 boost can significantly improve both the breadth and potency of neutralizing antibody responses and confer protection against upper and lower airway infection to a heterologous challenge virus, which is relatively resistant to in vitro neutralization.
References: PMID: 34672695 / doi: 10.1126/science.abl8912
Contact Info: Robert Seder: rseder@mail.nih.gov; Barney Graham: bgraham@nih.gov
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abl8912?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=o…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: ImmunityBio, Inc.; IosBio; Battelle Biomedical Research Center; NantKwest, Inc.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, dual-antigen vaccine, adenovirus vector, immune response, virus replication, primates
Summary of Study: In the rhesus macaque model, SC prime vaccination with two oral boosts with the dual-antigen hAd5 S-Fusion + N-ETSD vaccine provides protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection for both nasal and lung airways.
References: PMID: 34603305 / doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.729837
Contact Info: Patrick Soon-Shiong: patrick@nantworks.com
URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2021.729837/full
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Shanghai Jemincare Pharmaceuticles, Wuhan Institute of Virology, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, antivirus antibodies, prophylactic and potent therapeutic efficacy, primates
Summary of Study: Antibody JMB2002 demonstrated complete prophylactic and potent therapeutic efficacy in a rhesus macaque disease model.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.02.07.429299
Contact Info: Wuxiang Guan: dengsujun@jemincare.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.07.429299v2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: CureVac AG; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard; Harvard Medical School
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccine, immunogenicity and protective efficacy, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Optimization of non-coding regions can greatly improve the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a non-modified mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in macaques. Improved characteristics of CV2CoV, compared with CVnCoV, may translate into increased efficacy in humans, and clinical trials of CV2C0V are planned.
References: doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-04231-6
Contact Info: Susanne Rauch: susanne.rauch@curevac.com; Daniel Barouch: dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-04231-6
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Janssen Vaccines, Leiden University Medical Center, Harvard Medical School
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, adenovirus vectored COVID-19 vaccine, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: The immunogenicity, protective efficacy, and SARS-CoV-2 spike variant neutralizing data presented in this manuscript further support the decision to evaluate a single 5 x 10^10-vp dose of Ad26.COV2.S in Phase 3 trials.
References: PMID: 33909009 / doi: 10.1084/jem.20202756
Contact Info: Roland Zahn: rzahn@its.jnj.com
URL: https://rupress.org/jem/article/218/7/e20202756/212032/Immunogenicity-and-effica…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC, Netherlands), Utrecht University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, computed tomography, bronchoalveolar lavage, test interference, primates
Summary of Study: Thorax CTs were evaluated for alteractions in lung density in health and experimentally SARS-CoV-infected female rhesus macaques before and after brochoalveolar lavage (BAL). An increase in the lung density was observed on the post-BAL CT but resolved within 24 hours in the healthy animals; a significant difference in both the lung density and CT score was still found 24 hours post BAL in the infected animals.
References: PMID: 34242213 / doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0252941
Contact Info: Marieke Stammes: stammes@bprc.nl
URL: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252941
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIH, University of Oxford, NIAID, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, adenovirus-based vaccine, intranasal administration, hamsters, primates
Summary of Study: Intranasal vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 reduced virus concentrations in nasal swabs in two different SARS-CoV-2 animal models, warranting further investigation as a potential vaccination route for COVID-19 vaccines.
References: PMID: 34315826 / doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abh0755
Contact Info: Vincent Munster: vincent.munster@nih.gov
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/scitranslmed.abh0755?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Sanofi Pasteur, Yoh Services, Global Discovery Pathology, Translate Bio
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, multiple animal species, mRNA vaccine, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Several mRNA vaccine candidates were assessed; the lead 2P/GSAS vaccine formulation (designated MRT550) elicited potent nAbs as well as TH1-biased responses in NHPs, thus alleviating a hypothetical concern of potential vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory diseases known associated with TH2-biased responses. These data position MRT5500 as a viable vaccine candidate for entering clinical development.
References: PMID: 33875658 / doi: 10.1038/s41541-021-00324-5
Contact Info: Kirill Kalnin: kkirill45us@gmail.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41541-021-00324-5
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Fudan University, Second Military Medical University, Peking University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, cell-based vaccine, neutralizing antibodies, immune response, pathology, mice, primates
Summary of Study: The data present strong evidence supporting the promise of K562-S (a novel cell-based vaccine candidate that uses human cell K562 as a cellular carrier to display Spike (S) protein on the membrane) as a new effective vaccine for the prevention of COVID-19.
References: PMID: 34304724 / doi: 10.1080/22221751.2021.1957400
Contact Info: Jianqing Xu: xujianqing@shphc.org.cn; Xiaoyan Zhang: zhangxiaoyan@shphc.org.cn; Chen Zhao: chen_zhao72@163.com; Ping Zhao: pnzhao@163.com
URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/22221751.2021.1957400
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Scripps Research Institute; MIT; UCSD; Howard Hughes Medican Institute
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, receptor-binding domain vaccine, structural studies, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Broadly neutralizing antibodies to an unappreciated site of conservation in the RBD in SARS-related viruses can be readily induced in rhesus macaques because of distinct properties of the naive macaque B cell repertoire that suggest prudence in the use of the macaque model in SARS vaccine evaluation and design.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.07.05.451222
Contact Info: Ian Wilson: wilson@scripps.edu; Dennis Burton: burton@scripps.edu; Raiees Andrabi: andrabi@scripps.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.07.05.451222v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, GENOME INSIGHT, INC.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, infection models, organoids, primates
Summary of Study: Review of in vitro and in vivo models for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
References: PMID: 34187969 / doi: 10.14348/molcells.2021.0094
Contact Info: Young Seok Ju: ysju@kaist.ac.kr
URL: https://www.molcells.org/journal/view.html?doi=10.14348/molcells.2021.0094
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Hebei Agricultural University; Military Veterinary Research Institute
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, aerosol particles, viruse transduction, primates
Summary of Study: Most SARS-CoV-2 aerosol particles exhaled by the cynomolgus monkeys in this study were smaller (<4.7 um), suggesting that aerosols might be a route for SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
References: PMID: 34152969 / doi: 10.3201/eid2707.203948
Contact Info: Yuwei Gao: gaoyuwei@gmail.com
URL: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/27/7/20-3948_article
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: The Wistar Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, NIAID, and others
Keywords: MERS-CoV, intradermal and intramuscular delivery, synthetic DNA vaccine, primates
Summary of Study: Results illustrate that a MERS spike antigen synthetic DNA vaccine administered in a 2-dose i.d. EP regimen can have positive impact in an important NHP challenge model protecting against symptoms and pathology.
References: PMID: 33886507 / doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.146082
Contact Info: David Weiner: dweiner@wistar.org
URL: https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/146082
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: National Cancer Institute/NIH; BIOQUAL; University of Athens; University of Washington
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, DNA-based vaccine, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: A vaccine regimen comprising simultaneous co-immunization of DNA and Protein at the same anatomical site showed best neutralizing abilities and was more effective than DNA alone in inducing protective immune responses and controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.06.11.448032
Contact Info: Barbara Felber: barbara.felber@nih.gov
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.06.11.448032v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Amsterdam, Universite Paris-Saclay, University of Southampton, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, two-component protein nanoparticle vaccine, primates
Summary of Study: A two-component protein-based nanoparticle vaccine that displays multiple copies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein induces potent neutralizing antibody responses in cynomolgus macaques. The vaccine-induced immunity protects macaques against a high-dose challenge, resulting in strongly reduced viral infection and replication in the upper and lower airways. These nanoparticles are a promising vaccine candidate.
References: PMID: 33577765 / doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.035
Contact Info: Roger Le Grand: roger.le-grand@cea.fr; Rogier Sanders: r.w.sanders@amsterdamumc.nl
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867421000787?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Tokyo, Daichi Sankyo Col, Shiga University of Medical science, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, lipid nanoparticle-based mRNA vaccine candidate, immunogenicity, primates
Summary of Study: Macaques administered with LNP-mRNA targeting RBD acquired significantly high levels of protective IgG specific to SARS-CoV-2 in mucosal swab samples from conjunctiva, oral cavity, nasal cavity, trachea, bronchus, and rectum.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.03.04.433852
Contact Info: Ken Ishii: kenishii@ms.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Yoshihiro Kawaoka: kawaoka@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Fumihiko Takeshita: takeshita.fumihiko.aw@daiichisankyo.co.jp
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.03.04.433852v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Nat'l Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo; University of Tokyo; Kumamoto University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, T cells, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Study showed that subacute SARS-CoV-2 replication can be controlled even in the absence of CD8+ T cells. In SARS-CoV-2 infection, CD8+ T-cell responses may contribute to viral control, but these results suggest that CD8+ T-cell dysfunction does not solely lead to viral control failure or disease progression.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.05.26.445769
Contact Info: Tesuro Matano: tmatano@nih.go.jp; Takushi Nomura: nomutako@nih.go.jp
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.05.26.445769v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Statens Serum Institute; Robert Koch Institute; BIOQUAL; University of Southern Denmark
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, DNA plasmid vaccine, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: The candidate plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is immunogenic in different models and confers protection against lung infection in nonhuman primates. Further evaluation of this DNA vaccine candidate in clinical trials is warranted.
References: PMID: 34930909 / doi: 10.1038/s41541-021-00419-z
Contact Info: Anders Fomsgaard: afo@ssi.dk
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41541-021-00419-z
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques, african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, review
NPRC/Institute: Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Nagasaki University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, infective dose, several animal species, pathogenesis, primates
Summary of Study: This review focused on comparative infective dose studies for SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and MERS. The review suggests that the infective dose in humans is small, perhaps about 100 particles. Further work is required to understand the relationship between routes of transmission, infective dose, co-infection and outcomes.
References: PMID: 33849679 / doi: 10.1017/S0950268821000790
Contact Info: Sedighe Karimzadeh: sedigekarimsadeh@gmail.com; Raj Bhopal: Raj.Bhopal@ed.ac.uk
URL: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection/article/revie…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: North Carolina State University; UNC-Chapel Hill; BreStem Therapeutics, Bioqual, Inc.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 nanodecoys, inhalation therapy, mice and primates
Summary of Study: ACE2 nanodecoys derived from human lung spheroid cells (LSCs) can bind and neutralize SARS-CoV-2. In cynomolgus macaques challenged with live SARS-CoV-2, four doses of these nanodecoys delivered by inhalation promoted viral clearance and reduced lung injury. these results suggest that LSC-nanodecoys can serve as a potential therapeutic agent for treating COVID-19.
References: PMID: 34140674 / doi: 10.1038/s41565-021-00923-2
Contact Info: Ke Cheng: ke_cheng@ncsu.edu
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41565-021-00923-2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Pasteur Institute of Iran; University of Tehran; Biosunpharmed Co, Tehran; and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, inactivated whole-virus vaccine, immune response, mice, guinea pig, rabbit and primates
Summary of Study: COVIran Barekat, an inactivated whole-virus SARS-CoV-2 candidate vaccine, elicited a high level of SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing antibodies in mice, rabbits, and rhesus macaques.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.06.10.44.447951
Contact Info: Reza Aalizadeh: allizadehreza19@gmail.com; Hasan Jalili: hjalili@ut.ac.ir
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.06.10.447951v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Kazan State Medical Academy; Kazan State Medical University; Kazan Federal University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, infection, pathogenicity, eye surface, literature meta analysis, primates
Summary of Study: There is a possibility of COVID-19 transmission through the eye surface. Eye protection measures should be undertaken when working with potentially infected patients.
References: PMID: 34410064 / doi: 10.17116/oftalma2021137041104
Contact Info: not provided
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34410064/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Emory National Primate Research Center, Duke University School of Medicine, Harvard
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, modified vaccinia Ankara vector-based vaccine, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: MVA/S vaccination can provide protection from intranasal and intratracheal SARS-CoV-2 challenge and support further development of this vaccine to test immunogenicity and efficacy in humans.
References: PMID: 33631118 / doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2021.02.001
Contact Info: Rama Rao Amara: ramara@emory.edu
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S107476132100042X?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Laboratory of Virology; NIAID/NIH; University of Plymouth; The Vaccine Group, Ltd.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, intranasal infection, genome variants, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: UK B.1.1.7 infection of African green monkeys exhibits increased respiratory replication and shedding but no disease enhancement.
References: PMID: 34159332 / doi: 10.1101/2021.06.11.448134
Contact Info: Heinz Feldmann: feldmannh@niaid.nih.gov
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.06.11.448134v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID; Emory University Vaccine Center; BIOQUAL; Moderna; Johns Hopkins University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, variants of concern, booster, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: An additional, delayed boost with mRNA vaccines matched to either the original vaccine strain or to the heterologous challenge strain can have a marked and sustained effect on increaseing the breadth of neutralization against all VOCs tested and protection in both the lower and upper airways against the beta variant.
References: PMID: 34672695 / doi: 10.1126/science.abl8912
Contact Info: Robert Seder: rseder@mail.nih.gov; Barney Graham: bgraham@nih.gov
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abl8912?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=o…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Institut Pasteur; Sorbonne Universite; Ecole normale superieure Paris-Saclay; Universite de Paris
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, therapeutics, vaccine, pathogenesis, drug discovery, animal model, primates
Summary of Study: This review discusses the use of NHPs as models for COVID-19 research, with focus on the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, drug discovery and pre-clinical evaluation of vaccine candidates.
References: PMID: 34452011 / doi: 10.3390/vaccines9080886
Contact Info: Caroline Passaes: caroline.pereira-bittencourt@pasteur.fr
URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/9/8/886
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Biomedical Primate Research Centre, The Netherlands; Amsterdam UMC; Utrecht University, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, brain inflammation, longitudinal positron emission tomography, neuropathology,primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 causes brain inflammation and Lewy bodies, a hallmark for Parkinson, after an asymptomatic infection in macaques.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.02.23.432474
Contact Info: Ingrid Philippens: philippens@bprc.nl
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.23.432474v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: prevention
NPRC/Institute: Tulane National primate Research Center; Tulane School of Medicine; Duke University Medical Center
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies, pharmacokinetics, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: A combination of two high-affinity anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; C144-LS and C135-LS) effectively blocks development of COVID-19 in the rhesus disease model and accelerates the prospect of clinical studies with this effective antibody combination.
References: PMID: 34869063 / doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.753444
Contact Info: Chad Roy: croy@tulane.edu
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8637877/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Duke University School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, FDA, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, nanoparticles, receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: The immunization of macaques with nanoparticles conjugated with the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, and adjuvanted with 3M-052 and alum, elicits cross-neutralizing antibody responses against bat coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Nucleoside-modified mRNAs that encode a stabilized transmembrane spike or monomeric receptor-binding domain also induced cross-neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV and bat coronaviruses.
References: PMID: 33971664 / doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-03594-0
Contact Info: Kevin Saunders: kevin.saunders@duke.edu; Barton Haynes: barton.haynes@duke.edu
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03594-0
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences; Tsinghua University; Advaccine Biopharmaceuticals (Suzhou)
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, B cells, Toll-like receptor, preclinical study, virus-like particle, pathogen-like antigen, primates
Summary of Study: A PLA-based COVID-19 vaccine candidate could potentially serve as an alternative option for coping with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
References: PMID: 34723223 / doi: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100448
Contact Info: Zhaolin Hua: zlhua@moon.ibp.ac.cn; Hongyu Deng: hydeng@ibp.ac.cn; Baidong Hou: baidong_hou@ibp.ac.cn
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666379121003165?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Nagoya University; Kyushu University; Akita University Graduate School of Medicine; and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mathematical model, infection dynamics, kinetics of viral shedding, primates
Summary of Study: The authors used a simple mathematical model to quantify SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics in rhesus macaques. When antiviral treatments are initiated early (i.e. 0.5 d after virus inoculation), viral shedding is (paradoxically) prolonged by about 6.0 days compared with no treatment.
References: PMID: 34344719 / doi: 10.26508/lsa.202101049
Contact Info: Keisuke Ejima: kejima@iu.edu; Shingo Iwami: iwami.iblab@bio.nagoya-u.ac.jp
URL: https://www.life-science-alliance.org/content/4/10/e202101049
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Duke University School of Medicine, UNC Chapel Hill, NIAID, Harvard Medical School, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing antibodies, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: In vitro infection-enhancing RBC and NTD ABs controlled virus in vito and was rarely associated with enhanced lung pathology.
References: PMID: 34242577 / doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.06.021
Contact Info: Barton Haynes (Duke University School of Medicine); Kevin Saunders (Duke University School of Medicine)
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S009286742100756X?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences; Peking Union Medical College; Capital Medical University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pathology, myocardial injury, differential expression, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 infected rhesus macaques showed viral myocarditis, where inflammation and endothelial injury jointly resulted in cardiac damage.
References: PMID: 34489396 / doi: 10.1038/s413392-021-00747-5
Contact Info: Jiangning Liu: liujn@cnilas.org; Jing Wang: wangjing@ibms.pumc.edu.cn
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41392-021-00747-5
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Medicago, Inc.; Stanford University; Tulane University School of Medicine; McGill University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, plant-derived virus-like particle vaccine, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Although a single dose of an unadjuvanted virus-like particle (VLP) bearing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein vaccine candidate stimulated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, booster immunization (at 28 days after prime) and adjuvants significantly improved both responses with a higher immunogenicity and protection provided by AS03 adjuvanted CoVLP.
References: doi: 10.1101.2021.05.15.444262
Contact Info: Nathalie Landry: landryn@medicago.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.05.15.444262v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Laboratory of Virology (NIAID/NIH), Rocky Mountain Veterinary Branch (NIAID/NIH), CureVac AG
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccine candidate, humoral and cellular immune responses, primates
Summary of Study: A new SARS-CoV-2 S mRNA vaccine, CV07050101 was investigated in NHPs. Prime-boost vaccination of rhesus macaques with 4 ug of CV07050101 does not elicit a uniform nor robust immune response; however, vaccination using 8 ug of the same vaccine demonstrated protection.
References: PMID: 34268507 / doi: 10.1101/202.07.07.451505
Contact Info: Vincent Munster: vincent.munster@nih.gov
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.07.07.451505v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Southern Medical University, Shenzhen; Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, adenovirus vectored COVID-19 vaccine, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Prime-boost immunization with Sad23L-nCoV-S and Ad49L-nCoV-S (both carrying the full-length of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein gene) can safely elicit strong immunity in animals.
References: PMID: 33993845 / doi: 10.1080/22221751.2021.1931466
Contact Info: Yuming Zhang: yumingzhang1966@hotmail.com; Tingting Li: apple-ting-007@163.com
URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/22221751.2021.1931466
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Washington Univ, SW National Primate Research Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, transcriptional signatures, juvenile and old animals, lungs, primates
Summary of Study: Transcriptional profiles of lungs from juvenile and old macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2 were interrogated, providing fundamentally new information on the host response in young and old macaques. This model provides relevant insights necessary for further vaccine and therapeutic development for COVID-19.
References: PMID: 33674719 / doi: 10.1038/s42003-021-01829-4
Contact Info: Makedonka Mitreva: mmitreva@wustl.edu; Deepak Kaushal: dkaushal@txbiomed.org
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-021-01829-4
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID/NIH; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; Emory University; Moderna, Bioqual
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, RNA-vaccine, immune response, virus replication, protection, primates
Summary of Study: Data establish that a two-dose regimen of mRNA-1273 (Moderna vaccine) will be critical for providing upper and lower airway protection against major varriants of concern.
References: PMID: 34417590 / doi: 10.1038/s41590-021-02021-0
Contact Info: Barney Graham: bgraham@nih.gov; Robert Seder: rseder@mail.nih.gov
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41590-021-01021-0
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, african green monkeys, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, review
NPRC/Institute: Sichuan University; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, review of the current animal models, pathology, immune response, use for the testing therapeutics and vaccines, mice, hamsters, nonhuman primates, and ferrets
Summary of Study: A variety of animal models have been developed to demonstrate the transmission, pathogenesis, and immunology induced by SARS-CoV-2 and to evaluate the immunomodulatory and antiviral drugs and vaccines against COVID-19. None of these models can completely recapitulate the changes seein in COVID-19 patients. It may be beneficial for investigators to apply appropriate options of animal models depending on the scientific goals.
References: PMID: 34909757 / doi: 10.1002/mco2.98
Contact Info: Shuaiyao Lu: lushuaiyao-km@163.com
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8662225/pdf/MCO2-2-548.pdf
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Laboratory of Virology, Hamilton, MT; NIAID; University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK; The Vaccine Group, Ltd.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus genomic variants, pathology, virus replication, shedding, primates
Summary of Study: Results from the intranasal AGM COVID-19 surrogate model support the most recent data from B.1.1.7 in humans, providing direct empirical data for increased replication in the respiratory tissue, but with no enhancement of disease.
References: PMID: 34724885 / doi: 10.1080/22221751.2021.1997074
Contact Info: Heinz Feldmann: feldmannh@niaid.nih.gov
URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/22221751.2021.1997074
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; Washington Univ., Texas Biomedical Research Institute, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, spike ferritin nanoparticle vaccine, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: A SARS-CoV-2 spike protein ferritin nanoparticle vaccine, co-formulated with a liposomal adjuvant, elicits broad neutralizing antibody responses that exceed those observed for other major vaccines and rapidly protects against respiratory infection and disease in the upper and lower airways and lung tissue of NHPs.
References: PMID: 33791694 / doi: 10.1101/2021.03.24.436523
Contact Info: Kayvon Modjarrad: kayvon.modjarrad.civ@mail.mil; Michael Joyce: gjoyce@eidresearch.org
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.03.24.436523v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID; Emory National Primate Research Center; Emory University School of Medicine; Bioqual; Moderna
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA-vaccine, immune response, protection, virus reproduction, primates
Summary of Study: mRNA-1273 provided durable protection against B.1.617.2 challenge in the lower airways likely through anamnestic induction of antibody responses in the lung.
References: PMID: 34729558 / doi: 10.1101/2021.10.23.465542
Contact Info: Robert Seder: rseder@mail.nih.gov; Daniel Douek: ddouek@mail.nih.gov
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.10.23.465542v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NCI/NIH; BIOQUAL, Inc.; NIAID; Alchem Laboratories; Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus genomic variants, mucosal booster vaccine, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Following SARS-CoV-2 beta variant challenge, NHPs that received one intranasal beta-variant booster demonstrated significant protection against viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, with almost full protection in the nasal cavity.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.10.19.464990
Contact Info: Yongjun Sui: suiy@mail.nih.gov; Jay Berzofsky: berzofsj@mail.nih.gov
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.10.19.464990v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Sciences; Henan Normal University; Guangzhou Medical University; Fudan University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, inflammation, lung pathology, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 triggers an immediate mast cell (MC) degranulation, which initiates the alveolar epithelial inflammation and disrupts the tight junction. MC stabilizers that block degranulation reduce virus-induced lung inflammation and injury.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.06.24.449680
Contact Info: Jian-Hua Wang: wang_jianhua@gibh.ac.cn
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.06.24.449680v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: ReiThera Srl, University of Nottingham, National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani"
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, replication-defective gorilla adenovirus-vectored vaccine, immune response, mice and primates
Summary of Study: Pre-fusion stabilized Spike antigen is superior to the wild type in inducing ACE2-interfering, SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies.
References: PMID: 33895322 / doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.04.022
Contact Info: Alessandra Vitelli: alessandra.vitelli@reithera.com
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1525001621002100?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Shandong Boan Biotech Co., National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Shuimu Biosciences, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing antibodies, structural analysis, primates
Summary of Study: CA521^FALA is a promising antibody that reacts with SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein to strongly neutralize its activity.
References: PMID: 33893388 / doi: 10.1038/s42003-021-02029-w
Contact Info: Lan Wang: wanglan@nifdc.org.cn; Yong-Qiang Deng: dengyq1977@126.com; Changlin Dou: douchanglin@luye.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-021-02029-w
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Vyriad Inc.; Imanis Life Sciences; Mayo Clinic; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; University of Minnesota
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, oral rhabdoviral vaccine, boost, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: A relevant translational NHP model was used to demonstrate the safety and oral immunogenicity of a VSV-derived mucosal vaccine for SARS-CoV-2. Pre-IND discussion with FDA are ongoing.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.10.16.464660
Contact Info: Stephen Russell: sjrussell@vyriad.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.10.16.464660v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, hamadryas baboons, marmosets
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Southwest National Primate Research Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, Regeneron, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome, young and old animals, primates
Summary of Study: Acute respiratory distress in macaques and baboons recapitulates the progression of COVID-19 in humans, making them suitable as models to test vaccines and therapies.
References: PMID: 33340034 / doi: 10.1038/s41564-020-00841-4
Contact Info: Deepak Kaushal: dkaushal@txbiomed.org, Luis Giavedoni: lgiavedoni@txbiomed.org
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-020-00841-4#Sec9
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Harvard, MIT, Emory University School of Medicine, Emory National Primate Research Center and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, adjuvanted soluble protein vaccine, binding and functional neutralization assays, serology, primates
Summary of Study: Antibodies induced by the AS03-adjuvanted preS dTM vaccine are sufficient to mediate protection against SARS-CoV-2 and support the evaluation of this vaccine in human clinical trials.
References: PMID: 33688652 / doi: 10.1101/2021.03.02.433390
Contact Info: Robert Seder: rseder@mail.nih.gov
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.03.02.433390v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan; University of Tokyo; Kumamoto University, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, virus replication, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: The effect of CD8+ cell depletion on SARS-CoV-2 replication when monoclonal anti-CD8 antibody is administered in the subacute phase was studied in cynomolgus macaques. Analysis revealed no significant impact of CD8+ cell depletion on viral replication, indicating the subacute SARS-CoV-2 replication can be controlled in the absence of CD8+ T cells.
References: PMID: 34280241 / doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009668
Contact Info: Tetsuro Matano: tmatano@nih.go.jp; Takushi Nomura: nomutaku@nih.go.jp
URL: https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1009668
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Xiamen University, The University of HongKong, Shantou University, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, review of the primate models, clinical symptoms, pathogenesis, applications
Summary of Study: Review summarizes the benefits and caveats of NHP models currently available for SARS-CoV-2 and discusses key topics including model optimization, extended application, and clinical translation.
References: PMID: 34490832 / doi: 10.1080/22221751.2021.1976598
Contact Info: Tong Cheng: tcheng@xmu.edu.cn; Ningshao Xia: nsxia@xmu.edu.cn
URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/22221751.2021.1976598
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Emory National Primate Research Center; University of Pittsburgh; Emory University School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, macrophages, inflammation, mRNA analysis, kinase inhibitor, primates
Summary of Study: Multi-omic analyses of hyperacute SARS-CoV-2 infection in rhesus macaques identified two populations of infiltrating macrophages as the primary orchestrators of inflammation in the lower airway that can be successfully treated with baricitinib.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.10.05.463212
Contact Info: Steven Bosinger: steven.bosinger@emory.edu; Mirko Paiardini: mirko.paiardini@emory.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.10.05.463212v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Chungbuk National University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus variants, microevolution, species specific variations, primates
Summary of Study: The genomes of SARS-CoV-2 differ according to individuals and species despite infection of the identical virus in NHPs. These results are important for the interprretation of longitudinal studies evaluating the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 in humans and development of new diagnostics, vaccine, and therapeutics targeting SARS-CoV-2.
References: PMID: 34305860 / doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.694897
Contact Info: Jungjoo Hong: hong75@kribb.re.kr; Bon-Sang Koo: porco9@kribb.re.kr
URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2021.694897/full
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bioland Laboratory (Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory)
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, immunopathology, young and old animals, primates
Summary of Study: Results showed that the age-related immune microenvironment in the lungs, spleens, PBMCs , and CD8+ cells significantly affected the immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas the increase in inflammatory factor-secreting cells in the lungs and systemic accumulation of CXCR3+ cells are associated with necrosis and inflammatory activation of ACE2+ lung cells.
References: PMID: 34471088 / doi: 10.1038/s41392-021-00734-w
Contact Info: Yong-Tang Zheng: zhengyt@mail.kiz.ac.cn
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41392-021-00734-w
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Columbia University, University of Texas Medical Branch, Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, peptide-based vaccine targeting MHC class I epitopes, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: A room temperature stable peptide vaccine based on known immunogenic HLA class I bound CTL epitopes from the nucleocapsid protein can provide protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in nonhuman primates.
References: PMID: 34070152 / doi: 10.3390/vaccines9050520
Contact Info: Jason Comer: jscomer@utmb.edu; Reid Rubsamen: reid.rubsamen@UHHospitals.org
URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/9/5/520
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: DSO National Laboratories, Singapore; University of Texas Medical Branch; Hummingbird Bioscience; and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing antibodies, immune response, hamsters and primates
Summary of Study: SC31, a potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody isolated from a convalescent patient, demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in three different models.
References: PMID: 34161386 / doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0253487
Contact Info: Brendon John Hanson: hbrendon@dso.org.sg; Trevor Brasel: tbrasel@utmb.edu; Piers J. Ingram: p.ingram@hummingbirdbio.com
URL: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253487
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Eli Lilly and Co., AbCellera Biologics, UNC - Chapel Hill, University of Texas Medical Branch, and others.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, monoclonal antibodies, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: LY-CoV555 (aka bamlanivimab), a potent anti-spike neutralizing antibody from a hospitalized, convalescent patient with COVID-19 was followed in a pharmacokinetic study in cynomolgus monkeys and in a challenge model in rhesus macaques, where it showed impressive results. Currently in clinical testing.
References: PMID: 33820835 / doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abf1906
Contact Info: Bryan Jones: jones_bryan_edward@lilly.com; Ester Falconer: ester.falconer@abcellera.com
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/scitranslmed.abf1906?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Battelle National Biodefense Institute; Gryphon Scientific LLC, Censeo Insight; Applied Research Associates
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, inhalation, infection route, virus detection, dose response, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent disease presentation are dependent on exposure dose in a nonhuman primate model of inhalational COVID-19.
References: PMID: 34424943 / doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009865
Contact Info: Paul Dabisch: paul.dabisch@nbacc.dhs.gov
URL: https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1009865
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Battelle National Biodefense Institute; Gryphon Scientific LLC; Censeo Insight; Applied Research Associates
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, inhalation, seroconversion, fever, dose response, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent disease presentation are dependent on exposure dose in a nonhuman primate model of inhalational COVID-19.
References: PMID: 34424943 / doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009865
Contact Info: Paul Dabisch: paul.dabisch@nbacc.dhs.gov
URL: https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1009865
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Selva Therapeutics, Tulane National Primate Research Center, University of Texas Medical Branch, UC San Diego,
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2,cysteine protease inhibitors, antiviral effects, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: SLV is an orally available treatment likely to reduce the respiratory symptoms associated with clinical progression in COVID-19 patients. African green monkey studies with this drug demonstrated a reduction in lung weight and a reduction in coronavirus-mediated pathology in both prophylactic and treatment settings. A Phase I trial with SLV213 has recently been completed and a Phase II trial is planned (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04843787).
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.07.20.453127
Contact Info: Felix Frueh: ffrueh@selvarx.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.07.20.453127v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Ottawa; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute; Institut du Cancer de Montreal; University of Calgary
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, attenuated vaccinia virus vector, spike receptor binding domain, immune response, mice, primates
Summary of Study: Robust immune responses and protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants were demonstrated after only a single dose of a temperature stable vaccine candidate (TOH-Vac1) that uses a replication-competent, attenuated vaccinia virus as a vector to express a membrane-tethered spike receptor binding domain antigen.
References: PMID: 34687845 / doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.10.008
Contact Info: John Bell: jbell@ohri.ca; Carolina Ilkow: cilkow@uottawa.ca
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1525001621005153?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: YishengBio Co., Ltd.; Chinese Academy of Sciences; National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, S-trimer, PIKA, vaccine, virus genomic variants, primates
Summary of Study: In this study of non-human primates, PIKA adjuvanted S-trimer induced high SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers and protected from virus replication in the lung following SARS-CoV-2 challenge.
References: PMID: 34766005 / doi: 10.1186/s43556-021-00054-z
Contact Info: Yi Zhang: zhang@yishengbio.com
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475395/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: marmosets
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Russian Academy of Sciences, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, serology, neutralizing antibodies, immunogenicity, inactivated vaccine, primates
Summary of Study: A B-propiolactone-inactivated whole virion vaccine CoviVac was developed and assessed. The vaccine produced stable and robust humoral immune response in mice, Syrian hamsters and common marmosets.
References: PMID: 34427172 / doi: 10.1080/22221751.2021.1971569
Contact Info: Liubov Kozlovskaya: lubov_i_k@mail.ru
URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/22221751.2021.1971569
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: marmosets
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Russian Academy of Sciences; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical Univeristy; Lomonosov Moscow State University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, inactivated vaccine, long-term humoral immunogenicity, toxicity, mice, hamsters, primates
Summary of Study: A beta-propiolactone-inactivated whole virion vaccine (CoviVac) was asses and showed no signs of acute/chronic, reproductive, embryo- and fetotoxicity or teratogenic effects, as well as no allergenic properties in the animal species studied.
References: PMID: 34427172 / doi: 10.1080/22221751.2021.1971569
Contact Info: Liubov Kozlovskaya: lubov_i_k@mail.ru
URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/22221751.2021.1971569
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: King Mongkut's University of Technology; Chulalongkorn University; Mahidol University; B.F. Feed Company, Ltd.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, spike receptor-binding domain, immunization, convalescent sera, B-cell epitopes, primates
Summary of Study: The immunoinformatics method described could be a useful tool for identification of antibody epitopes in new virus variants and also other target proteins.
References: PMID: 34650130 / doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-99642-w
Contact Info: Yaowaluck Mapring Roshorm: yaowaluck.ros@kmutt.ac.th
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-99642-w
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: The 4th R&D Institute, Agency for Defense Development, Yuseong, P.O. Box 35, Daejeon 34186, Republic of Korea
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, siRNA inhibitors, hamster and primates
Summary of Study: An siRNA targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) showed a reduction in SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced fever and virus titer in the Golden Syrian hamster and rhesus macaque. These results suggest the potential for RdRp targeting siRNA as a new treatment for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.07.190967
Contact Info: Seong Tae Jeong at birdyjeong@add.re.kr
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.07.190967v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chulalongkorn University, Mahidol University, Baiya Phytopharm Co., National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, plant-produced receptor-binding domain, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: The plant-based protein RBD-Fc was shown to be immunogenic and significantly boosted a humoral and cell-mediated immune response in both mice and cynomolgus macaques. This protein has the potential for use as a vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2.
References: PMID: 34054909 / doi: 10.3389/fpls.2021.682953
Contact Info: Waranyoo Phoolcharoen: waranyoo.p@chula.ac.th
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158422/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; University of Washington; Washington National Primate Research Center; HDT Bio; NIAID
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, phage-based deep mutational scanning approach, spike protein, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in macaques shares many features with humans, but with substantial differences in the recognition of certain epitopes and considerable individual variability in antibody escape profiles, suggesting a diverse repertoire of antibodies that can respond to major epitopes in both humans and macaques.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.12.01.470697
Contact Info: Julie Overbaugh: joverbau@fredhutch.org
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.12.01.470697v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (India), Biodiversity Research Center, Academic Sinica (Taipei) and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 variants, binding affinity of ACE2 to S-protein, multiple species, humans and primates
Summary of Study: Binding affinity of ACE2 to S-protein was studied in various NHP species. Based on findings, the authors propose that the common ancestor of primates was strongly resistant to and that of New World monkeys was completely resistant to SARS-CoV-2; whereas apes and Old World monkeys, like most humans, are susceptible. This study increases our understanding of the differences in susceptibility to SARS-CV-2 infection among primates.
References: PMID: 33674876 / doi: 10.1093/molbev/msab060
Contact Info: Yan Yuan Tseng: ytseng@wayne.edu; Lily Hui-Ching Wang: lilywang@life.nthu.edu.tw
URL: https://academic.oup.com/mbe/advance-article/doi/10.1093/molbev/msab060/6154855
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tulane National Primate Research Center; Tulane University School of Medicine; Zalgen Labs, LLC., Duke University Medical Center
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, route of experimental infection, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Lack of regenerative activity in the lung was present in both species post-resolution of most of the viral RNA, indicating the NHP model of SARS-CoV-2 infection can be utilized during anti-fibrosis therapeutic development and evaluation and has potential utility in evaluation of post-acute COVID sequelae.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.11.28.470250
Contact Info: Chad Roy: croy@tulane.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.11.28.470250v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Tulane National Primate Research Center, Northwestern University, Duke University Medical Center, Tulane School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, monoclonal antibodies, neutralization, mucosal viral challenge, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: A combination of two mAbs demonstrated that administration of these mAbs at a range of doses achieved near-complete protection from viral replication and disease even when challenge occurred 75 days after mAb administration.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.05.26.445878
Contact Info: Chad Roy: croy@tulane.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.05.26.445878v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Public Health England; University of Oxford; Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust; Quadram Institute Bioscience
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, inactivated vaccine, vaccine-enhanced disease, pathology, ferrets, primates
Summary of Study: Studies assessed the potential for VED (vaccine-enhanced disease) in animals faccinated with formaldehyde-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 forumlated with Alhydrogel, compared to a negative control vaccine. No evidence of enhanced disease was shown in ferrets of rhrsus macaques except for mild transient enhanced disease seen 7 days after infection in ferrets. This was resolved by day 15.
References: PMID: 34516768 / doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abg7996
Contact Info: Miles Carol: miles.carrol@phe.gov.uk; Andrew Gorringe: andrew.gorringe@phe.gov.uk
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.abg7996?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=or…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Hynnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research, University of Massachusetts Medical School
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, T cells, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Six peptides were defined as the most frequently recognized T cell epitopes, and overlapped to produce three main long epitopes. This finding may provide a convenient pattern in the detection of T cell responses for the development of new vaccines and provides a novel target in the diagnosis of patients with COVID-19.
References: PMID: 33980582 / doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.2000922
Contact Info: Wei Cun: cunwei@foxmail.com
URL: https://www.jimmunol.org/content/206/11/2527.long
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Southwest National Primate Research Center; Washington University SOM; TX Biomedical Research Institute; Tulane University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, bronchoalveolar lavage, transcription profiling, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: The recruitment of a myeloid-cell-mediated Type I IFN response is associated with the rapid clearance of SARS-CoV-2 infection in macaques.
References: PMID: 34282414 / doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-664507/v1
Contact Info: Dhiraj Singh: dkaushal@txbiomed.org
URL: https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-664507/v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: pigtail macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Nanogen Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Joint Stock Company; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (Hanoi, Vietnam)
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, protein subunit vaccine, Nanocovax, pathogenesis, mice, hamsters, primates
Summary of Study: Nanocovax, a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates based on recombinant protein production of the extracellular portion of the spike protein, was shown to be safe and effective in three animal models.
References: PMID: 34938290 / doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.766112
Contact Info: Min Si Do: minhsi@nanogenpharma.com
URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2021.766112/full
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: marmosets, howler monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Instituto Federal do Norte de Minas Gerais, Brazil; Universidade de Brasilia; State University of Santa Cruz, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, wild animals, epidemiology, neotropical primates
Summary of Study: 51 neotropical NHPs were examined for serological and virological evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections. No evidence of viral spillover into these populations was found.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.06.17.448890
Contact Info: Danilo Bretas deOliveira: danilo.bretas@ufvjm.edu.br
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.06.17.448890v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Erasmus Medical Center, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Utrecht University, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, inactivated virus vaccine, immune response, pathology, mice, primates
Summary of Study: The surrogate virus-neutralization test (sVNT) detects high titers of RBD-binding antibodies and thus is potentially useful as an assay for large seroprevalence studies that aim at detecting high titers (vaccination trials or large-scale initial testing of potential animal reservoirs.)
References: PMID: 34458548 / doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100313
Contact Info: Carmen Embregts: c.embregts@erasmusmc.nl; Corine GeurtsvanKessel: c. geurtsvankessel@erasmusmc.nl
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352771421001038?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Emory National Primate Research Center, Emory University; Emory University School of Medicine; University of Pittsburgh
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, multi-omic analyses, inflammation, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Multi-omic analyses of hyperacute SARS-CoV-2 infection in rhesus macaques identified two populations of infiltrating macrophages as the primary orchestrators of inflammation in th elowre airway that can be successfully treated with baricitinib.
References: PMID: 34642693 / doi: 10.1101/2021.10.05.463212
Contact Info: Steven Bosinger: steven.bosinger@emory.edu; Mirko Paiardini: mirko.paiardini@emory.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.10.05.463212v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Beijing Institute of Microbiology & Immunology; Institute of Military Veterinary, Academic of Military Medical Sciences
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, recombinant vaccine, efficacy of RBD-Fc Vacc, mice and primates
Summary of Study: A new recombinant vaccine made by fusing the SARS-CoV-2 RBD with the Fc fragment of human IgG1induced a potent immune response, protecting cynomolgus macaques against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
References: PMID: 33731916 / doi: 10.1038/s41423-021-00658-z
Contact Info: Yansong Sun: yansongsunamms@126.com; Yuwei Gao: gaoyuwei@gmail.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41423-021-00658-z
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tulane National Primate Research Center; Tulane University School of Medicine; Tulane University Information Technology
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, whole-blood transcriptome profiling, primates
Summary of Study: Hallmark similarities and differences in the RM and AGM accute response to SARS-CoV-2 infection were discovered and may help guide the selection of particular NHP species in modeling aspects of COVID-19 disease outcome.
References: PMID: 34691074 / doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.754642
Contact Info: Joseph Mudd: jmudd1@tulane.edu
URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2021.754642/full
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Milad Daro Noor Pharmaceutical (MDNP) Co., Iran; Stem Cell Technology Research Center (STRC); Imam Hussein University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, inactivated vaccine candidate, immunization, immune response, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, primates
Summary of Study: FAKHRAVAC, a purified inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccine candidate induced neutralizing antibodies in Balb/c mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and rhesus macaques.
References: PMID: 34835202 / doi: 10.3390/vaccines9111271
Contact Info: Ahmad Karimi Rahjerdi: A-Karimi@mdnp.ir or rahjerdi@strc.ac.ir
URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/9/11/1271
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, pigtail macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; University of Washington; Washington National Primate Research Center; NIAID
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, phage-based deep mutational scanning, epitope targets, spike protein, humans, primates
Summary of Study: Findings suggest that the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in macaques shares many features with humans, but with substantial differences in the recognition of certain epitopes and considerable individual variability in antibody escape profiles, suggesting a diverse repertoire of antibodies that can respond to major epitopes in both humans and macaques.
References: PMID: 34909774 / doi: 10.1101/2021.12.01.470697
Contact Info: Julie Overbaugh: joverbau@fredhutch.org
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.12.01.470697v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC); Eurofins-INGENASA; Erasmus University Medical Center; Utrecht University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, post-acute phase, immune response, tomography, virus replication, primates
Summary of Study: NHPs infected with SARS-CoV-2 were followed for up to 6 weeks and monitored for COVID-19-like disease symptoms. Data indicate widespread tissue dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 in individual monkeys and provide evidence for continuing virus replication in lungs and surrounding lymph nodes after alleged convalescence of infection.
References: PMID: 34452537 / doi: 10.3390/v13081673
Contact Info: Ernst Verschoor: verschoor@bprc.nl
URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/13/8/1673
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys, rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tulane University School of Medicine; Tulane National Primate Research Center; SE LA Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome and diabetes, chronic pancreatic dysfunction, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 infects pancreatic islet, ductal, and endothelial cells in male and female NHPs and humans with COVID-19. The long-term consequences of a fibrotic/thrombotic pancreas, such as chronic pancreatic exocrine dysfunction and late-onset diabetes, should be investigated as postacute sequelae of COVID-19.
References: PMID: 34241597 / doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.151551
Contact Info: Mirza Muhammad Fahd Qadir: mqadir@tulane.edu; Rudolf Bohm: bohm@tulane.edu
URL: https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/151551
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnologi, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus entry mediated by ACE2, several species
Summary of Study: A natural isoform of the rhesus macaque ACE2 protein with the Y217N mutation was resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection, highlighting the possible impact of this ACE2 mutation on SARS-CoV-2 studies in rhesus macaques. The authors also demonstrated that the Y217 residue of ACE2 is a critical determinant for the ability of ACE2 to mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry. The results of this study clarify that SARS-CoV-2 can use the ACE2 receptors of multiple animal species and show that tracking the natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 is complex.
References: PMID: 33610551 / doi: 10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100435
Contact Info: Yan-Dong Tang: tangyandong2008@163.com
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021925821002088?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Harvard Medical School; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard; UNC Chapel Hill; Tufts University; Janssen Vaccines & Prevention.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, adenovirus vectored COVID-19 vaccine, humoral and cellular immune responses, genome variants, primates
Summary of Study: The Ad26.COV2.S vaccine provided robust protection against both WA1/2020 and B.1.351 variants.
References: PMID: 34161961 / doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-03732-8
Contact Info: Dan Barouch: dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03732-8
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NCI, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, BIOQUAL, University of Athens School of Medicine, University of Washington
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, DNA-based vaccine, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: A vaccine regimen comprising simultaneous co-immunization of DNA and Protein at the same anatomical site showed best neutralizing abilities and was more effective than DNA alone in inducing protective immune responses and controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection. An expansion of the DNA vaccine regimen to include co-immunization with Spike protein may be of advantage for SARS-CoV-2.
References: PMID: 34551020 / doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009701
Contact Info: Barbara Felber: barbara.felber@nih.gov
URL: https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1009701
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: lemurs, lorises
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Calgary; Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat Pompeu Fabra; North Carolina Central University, Duke University and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 gene and protein sequences, several species, primates
Summary of Study: Study suggests that lemurs of the families Indriidae, Daubentonlidae, and Lemuridae are likely to be particularly vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
References: PMID: 33792947 / doi: 10.1002/ajp.23255
Contact Info: James Higham: jhigham@nyu.edu
URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajp.23255
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Huazhong University of Science & Technology; Chinese Academy of Sciences; Peking University; Shanghai Junshi Biosciences Co., Ltd.; and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ACE2-blocking monoclonal antibody, receptor-binding domain, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: The ACE2-blocking MAb represents a broadly promising therapeutic candidate against emergence, re-emergence, and future zoonotic transmission events from SARSr-CoVs and variants.
References: PMID: 34404805 / doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-25331-x
Contact Info: Wenjie Tan: tanwj@ivdc.chinacdc.cn
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-25331-x
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Shanghai Jemincare Pharmaceuticals Co.; Chinese Academy of Sciences; tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing antibodies, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Two potent nABs against SARS-CoV-2 from naive phage-displayed human B cell single-chain variable fragment libraries were identified. One, JMB2002) not only showed potent in vitro blocking activity against a broad-spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 variants including the B.1.351 lineage, but also potent therapeutic efficacy and complete prophylactic protection against SARS-CoV-2 in a rhesus macaque infection model. Prophylactic and therapeutic countermeasure intervention of SARS-CoV-2 using antibody JMB2002 would likely slow down the transmission of currently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants and result in more efficient control of the COVID-19 pandemic.
References: PMID: 34097570 / doi: 10.1080/19420862.2021.1930636
Contact Info: Su-Jun Deng: dengsujun@jemincare.com; Wuxiang Guan: guanwx@wh.iov.cn; Zhiming Yuan: yzm@wh.iov.cn
URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19420862.2021.1930636
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Wuhan Institute of Virology, Tongji Medical College, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, inactivated vaccine, mice and primates, immune response
Summary of Study: The authors tested the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of an inactivated vaccine based on on the whole viral particles in human ACE2 transgenic mouse and in NHPs. This inactivated vaccine successfully induced SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in both models.
References: PMID: 33835391 / doi: 10.1007/s12250-021-00376-w
Contact Info: Xing-Lou Yang: yangsx@wh.iov.cn; Shuo Shen: shenshuo1@sinopharm.com; Zhi-Ming Yuan: yzm@wh.iov.cn
URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12250-021-00376-w
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences; National Research Center for Exotic Animal Diseases, China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, meta analysis, review of the animal models, vaccination, mice, hamsters, ferrets, primates
Summary of Study: This review summarizes the landscape of animal models for COVID-19 vaccine evaluation and advanced vaccines with an efficacy range from about 50% to more than 95%.
References: PMID: 34696190 / doi: 10.3390/vaccines9101082
Contact Info: Yuwei Gao: yuwei0901@outlook.com; Feihu Yan: yanfh1990@163.com; Songtao Yang: yst62041@163.com
URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/9/10/1082
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Tsinghua University School of Medicine; Chinese Academy of Sciences; Peking Union Medical College, The University of Hong Kong, and more
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, adenovirus vector, vaccine candidate, immune response, hamsters, mice, primates
Summary of Study: ADC68, a rare chimpanzee adenovirus serotype, was used as a vector for vaccine and induced potent and protective immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 in experimental animals, providing scientific rationale for further developing ADC68-19S as a clinical vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans.
References: PMID: 34262569 / doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.697074
Contact Info: Zhiwei Chen: zchenai@hku.hk; Xioxhong Peng: pengxiaozhong@pumc.edu.cn; Dongming Zhou: zhoudongming@tmu.edu.cn
URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2021.697074/full
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Sciences; Shenzhen Third People's Hospital; Guangzhou Medical University; UT Southwestern Medical Center; and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, fusion protein vaccine, immune response, rodents and primates
Summary of Study: the pan-epitope modified human I-R-F (I-P-R-F) vaccine provides rapid and complete protection throughout the upper and lower respiratory tracts against a high-dose SARS-C0V-2 challenge in rhesus macaques.
References: PMID: 34267349 / doi: 10.1038/s41422-021-00531-8
Contact Info: Yang-Xin Fu: Yang-Xin.Fu@UTSouthwestern.edu
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41422-021-00531-8
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Washington National Primate Research Center; North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine; University of Washington.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, single cell immune repertoire profiling, gene expression, primates
Summary of Study: Results establish the ability to perform high throughput scIRS analyusis in rhesus macaques with comparable performances to commercially available platforms.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.08.17.456682
Contact Info: Xinxia Peng: xpeng5@ncsu.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.08.17.456682v1.supplementary-materi…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Tufts University, BIOQUAL, Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, prior infection, vaccination, virus variants, protection, hamsters, primates
Summary of Study: Data suggest partial but reduced short-term protective efficacy of WA1/2020 natural immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. More research is needed to define protective efficacy against other SARS-CoV-2 variants and the immunologic mechanisms of protection against these variants.
References: PMID: 34546094 / doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abj2641
Contact Info: Dan Barouch: dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/scitranslmed.abj2641?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wuhan YZY Biopharma Co., Ltd.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, subunit vaccine, immunity, virus load, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: The RBD-homodimer vaccine candidate studied can induce both humoral and cellular response in vivo and prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in both rodents and non-human primates. Production of this RBD vaccine candidate can be performed in large scale, which will enhance the vaccine supply and warrants future clinical trials.
References: PMID: 34493710 / doi: 10.1038/s41421-021-00320-y
Contact Info: Zhiming Yuan: yzm@wh.iov.cn; Chao Shan: shanchao@wh.iov.cn; Genfu Xiao: xiaogf@wh.iov.cn
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41421-021-00320-y
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Stanford Univ. SOM, Univ. of Washington, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Emory National Primate Research Center, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, subunit vaccine, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Data highlighted the efficacy of the adjuvanted RBD-NP vaccine in promoting protective immunity against SARS-Cov-2 and have led to phase I/II clinical trials of this vaccine.
References: PMID: 33873199 / doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-03530-2
Contact Info: Bali Pulendran: bpulend@stanford.edu;
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03530-2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: SW National Primate Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, Tulane University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, single-cell RNA sequencing. Immune response, primates
Summary of Study: The recruitment of a myeloid-cell-mediated Type I IFN response is associated with the rapid clearance of SARS-CoV-2 infection in macaques.
References: PMID: 34282414 / doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-664507/v1
Contact Info: Deepak Kaushal: dkaushal@txbiomed.org
URL: https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-664507/v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Meissa Vaccines, Inc., BIOQUAL, Inc., University of Texas Medical Branch, Butler University, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, vaccine candidate, immune response, virus variants, primate
Summary of Study: One mucosal administration of MV-014-212 in African green monkeys protected against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Intranasally delivered, live attenuated vaccines such as MV-014-212 entail low-cost manufacturing suitable for global deployment. MV-014-212 is currently in Phase I clinical trials as a single-dose intranasal COVID-19 vaccine.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.07.16.452733
Contact Info: Mariana Tioni: mariana.tioni@meissavaccines.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.07.16.452733v2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: UC Davis, National Institutes of Health (Pakistan), California National Primate Research Center, New York State Department of Health
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, multiplex test, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: The authors report the development and validation of a multiplex bead assay to simultaneously and specifically detect antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and common human coronavirus strains (229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1). Multiplex serological assays enabled the investigation of the dynamics of immune responses in COVID-19 patients.
References: PMID: 34242356 / doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0254367
Contact Info: Imran Khan: ihkhan@ucdavis.edu
URL: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254367
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: SUNY Upstate Medical University; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; NIAID; Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA-1273 vaccine, single-cell transcriptomic profiling, virus variants, inflammation, primates
Summary of Study: Single cell RNA sequencing analysis demonstrates that mRNA-1273 vaccination limits the development of lower respiratory tract inflammation in SARS-CoV-2 challenged rhesus macaques.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.12.24.474132
Contact Info: Robert Seder: rseder@mail.nih.gov
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.12.24.474132v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: IRSICaixa AIDS Research Institute; Barcelona Institute of Science & Technology; Emory National Primate Research Center, Emory University, and more
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, antigen presenting myeloid cells, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Although being largely resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection, myeloid cells effectively capture and trap incoming viruses in internal compartments connected with the plasma membrane, eventually leading to viral degradation over time.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.05.11.443572
Contact Info: Javier Martinez/Picado: jmpicado@irsicaixa.es; Julia Vergara-Alert: julia.vergara@irta.cat
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.05.11.443572v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College; Chinese Academy of Sciences
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccine, nanoparticles, immune response, pathology, mice and primates
Summary of Study: Using both mouse and rhesus macaque SARS-CoV-2 challenge models, this study demonstrates strong immunogenicity, protective ability and high safety profiles of SW0123 (an LPP-based mRA vaccine), and supports this promising candidate for future clinical evaluation.
References: PMID: 34059617 / doi: 10.1038/s41392-021-00634-z
Contact Info: Wenjie Tan: tanwj@ivdc.chinacdc.cn; Xiaozhong Peng: pengxiaozhong@pumc.edu.cn
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41392-021-00634-z
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: The Catholic University of Korea, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, SK Science, Jeonbuk National University, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, immune response, mice and primates
Summary of Study: RBD-P2 + alum immunization elicits a robust neutralizing antibody response and provides complete or near-complete elimination of live SARS-CoV-2 virus particles. Additionally, findings provide insight into the potential use of the N protein in the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
References: PMID: 34049881 / doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abg7156
Contact Info: Jae-Hwan Nam: jhnam@catholic.ac.kr; Sang-Myeong Lee: smlee@chungbuk.ac.kr; Jung Joo Hong: hong75@kribb.re.kr
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.abg7156?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=or…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming Institute of Zoology; Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shenzhen Bay Laboratory; School of Medicine, Tsinghua University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, receptor-binding domain subunit vaccine, humoral and cellular immune responses, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: A trimeric SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) subunit vaccine that stimulates the natural structure of the spike (S) trimer glycoprotein is highly immunogenic and safe, providing long-lasting, broad, and significant immunity protection in NHPs. The vaccine-induced antibodies can effectively neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2 variant. A booster vaccination can quickly activate the memory immune response to avoid re-infection.
References: PMID: 34179862 / doi: 10.1016/j.xinn.2021.100140
Contact Info: Limin Yang: lmyang@im.ac.cn; Yong-tang Zheng: zhengyt@mail.kiz.ac.cn
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214323/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Harvard Medical School, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, adenovirus vaccine, immunogenicity and protective efficacy, mice
Summary of Study: RhAd52 vaccines elicit robust SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody responses and protect against clinical disease and viral replication in the lungs. These data validate the MA10 mouse model as a useful tool to screen and study novel vaccine candidates, as well as the development of RhAd52 vaccines for COVID-19.
References: PMID: 34523968 / doi: 10.1128/JVI.00974-21
Contact Info: Dan Barouch: dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu
URL: https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/JVI.00974-21?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: prevention
NPRC/Institute: California National Primate Research Center; University of California, Davis; Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center; The Rockefeller University.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, neuroinflammation, effector CD4 T cells, inflammation, cerebrospinal fluid, pneumonia, primates
Summary of Study: Neutralizing mABs administered preventatively to high-risk populations may mitigate the adverse inflammatory consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure.
References: PMID: 34706272 / doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109942
Contact Info: Smita Iyer: smiyer@ucdavis.edu
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211124721014157?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Jiangsu Rec-biotechnology Co Ltd, China; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences; Wuhan University; Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, subunit vaccine, protective immunity, mice, primates
Summary of Study: Two-dose imunizations of ReCOV, a recombinant trimeric NTD and RBD two-component SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine adjuvanted with BFA03, provided complete protecton against challenge with SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 transgenic mice and rhesus macaques, without observable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.11.03.467182
Contact Info: Yong Liu: liuy@recbio.cn; Feng-Cai Zhu: jszfc@vip.sina.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.11.03.467182v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Amsterdam; University Paris-Saclay, Inserm, CEA; AIMM Therapeutics BV; J&S Preclinical Solutions; Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, variants of concern, third vaccination, mice, rabbits, primates
Summary of Study: A third immunization improves neutralizing antibody titers against the variants-of-concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta).
References: PMID: 34862406 / doi: 10.1038/s41541-021-00411-7
Contact Info: Rogier Sanders: r.w.sanders@amsterdamumc.nl
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41541-021-00411-7
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: National Primate Research Centre, Republic of Korea; Chonnam National University; Korea Cancer Center Hospital; University of Ulsan College of Medicine; Futuristic Animal Resource Centre; Seoul National University; Korea University of Science & Technology; and others.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, germinal centers, viral reinfection, lung damage, primates
Summary of Study: The seroconversion observed in macaques, which recapitulates the course of COVID-19 disese in human survivors with mild or moderate symptoms, was consistent with the response of GCs in lymphoid tissues and blood of the human subjects tested.
References: PMID: 34718664 / doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiab535
Contact Info: Jung Joo Hong: hong75@kribb.re.kr
URL: https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/224/11/1861/6413652
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: University of California-Davis; California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub; Vitalant Research Institute; University of Wisconsin-Madison; Wisconsin National Primate Research Center/UW Madison; University of California-San Francisco
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, convalescent plasma, viral shedding, treatment efficiency, primates
Summary of Study: Passive immunization with convalescent plasma (CP), even during early infection, provided no significant benefit in a nonhuman primate model of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
References: PMID: 34817208 / doi: 10.1128/Spectrum.01397-21
Contact Info: Jesse Deere: jddeere@ucdavis.edu
URL: https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/Spectrum.01397-21
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine; Washington University; National Cancer Institute/NIH; BIOQUAL; and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, nanoparticle protein vaccine, humoral and cellular immune responses, primates
Summary of Study: Findings support the continued development of SARS-CoV-2 RBD ferritin nanoparticle vaccines (RFN) for managing COVID-19 and related SARS-CoV-like virus outbreaks.
References: PMID: 34470866 / doi: 10.1073/pnas.2106433118
Contact Info: Kayvon Modjarrad: kmodjarrad@eidresearch.org; Diane Bolton: dbolton@hivresearch.org
URL: https://www.pnas.org/content/118/38/e2106433118.long
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Universite Paris-Saclay/Inserm/CEA; Vaccine Research INstitute, Creteil, France; Inserm; Baylor Scott and White Research Institute; Institut Pasteur; Karolinska Institutet; and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, subunit vaccine, receptor-binding domain, immune response, humanized mice, primates
Summary of Study: A single dose of the alphaCD40.RBD (a vaccine that targets the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen to the CD40 receptor) administered without adjuvant boosts the protective response in COVID-10 convalescent NHPs.
References: PMID: 34471122 / doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-25382-0
Contact Info: Yves Levy: yves.levy@inserm.fr
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-25382-0
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Harvard Medical School; Walter Reed National Military Medical Center; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard; Bioqual; University of Pittsburgh; Henry Jackson Foundation
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, live oral vaccine, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Post-pyloric inoculation of live SARS-CoV-2 is weakly immunogenic and confers partial protection against respiratory SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.09.13.460191
Contact Info: Dan Barouch: dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.09.13.460191v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, review
NPRC/Institute: NCR Biotech Science Cluster; Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur; Krishi Vigyan Kendra; Inter University Centre for Biomedical Research and Super Speciality Hospital
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, zoonotic diseases, one health approach, multiple species, primates
Summary of Study: This review examines the different natural and experimentally induced cases of human to animal SARS-CoV-2 infection (reverse zoonosis).
References: PMID: 34903944 / doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2021.2817-2826
Contact Info: R. Kumar Pramod: drpramodr@gmail.com
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8654767/pdf/Vetworld-14-2817.pdf
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Walter Reed Army Institute, Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, NCI, BIOQUAL, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, Columbia University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ferritin nanoparticle vaccine, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Evaluation of a SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor-binding doman ferritin nanoparticle protein vaccine (RFN), adjuvanted with a liposomal-QS21 formulation (ALFQ) elicits humoral and cellular immune responses exceeding those of current vaccines.
References: PMID: 33851155 / doi: 10.1101/2021.04.09.439166
Contact Info: Diane Bolton: dbolton@hivresearch.org; Kayvon Modjarrad: kayvon.modjarrad.cov@mail.mil
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.04.09.439166v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Perelman School of medicine; University of Wisconsin-Medison; The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; Cardiomyogen; ORRA Group, LLC; Stanford University, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, AAV vectors, immunization, immune response, mice, primates
Summary of Study: These studies demonstrate not only that AAV6 and AAV9 can function as effective vaccine platforms, but also that vaccine can provide long-term efficacy primarily through the induction of cellular immunity.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.08.16.456441
Contact Info: Hansell Stedman: hstedman@mail.med.upenn.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.08.16.456441v1.article-metrics
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: marmosets
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tsinghua University; Chongqing Medical University; Chinese Academy of Sciences; Shenzhen Bay Laboratory; Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Fudan University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus variants, entry efficiency, host tropism, sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies, primates
Summary of Study: Results demonstrated that the spike protein of Kappa, Delta or B.1.618 with distinct mutations have altered their ability in utilizing ACE2 orthologs for cell entry.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.09.03.458829
Contact Info: Qiang Ding: qding@tsinghua.edu.cn
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.09.03.458829v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, The Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical Univ. for Nationalities (China), and the University of Alabama
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 protein expression, lung injury, mice and primates
Summary of Study: Data from this study unequivocally support the key role of ACE2 in the sinonasal mucosa as a functional reARS-CoV-2; however, the restricted baseline expression pattern of ACE1 in the lung presents a conundrum as it raises questions about alternative viral receptors or additional mechanisms of lung injury in COVID-19 pneumonia.
References: PMID: 33626084 / doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0247510
Contact Info: Sule Cataltepe: scataltepe@bwh.harvard.edu
URL: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247510
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Harvard Medical School; Janssen Vaccines & Prevention; Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine; Bioqual; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, adenovirus vectored COVID-19 vaccine, virus transduction, primates
Summary of Study: A single immunization with relatively low dose of Ad26.COV2.S effectively protected against SARS-CV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques, although a higher vaccine dose may be required for protection in the upper respiratory tract.
References: PMID: 34133941 / doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.05.040
Contact Info: Dan Barouch: dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu
URL: https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(21)00693-0?_returnURL=https%3A//li…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: pigtail macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tulane National Primate Research Center; Tulane University School of Medicine; Florida State University; University of Texas Medical Branch, Perelman School of Medicine; and others.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, respiratory viral challenge, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 infection of pigtail macaques recapitulates important features of COVID-19 and reveals new immune and viral dynamics and thus may serve as a useful animal model for studying pathogenesis and testing vaccines and therapeutics.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.08.28.458047
Contact Info: Nicholas Maness: nmaness@tulane.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.08.28.458047v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Ology Bioservices; Harvard Medical School; Vanderbilt University Medical Center; US Department of Defense; Logistics Management Institute; Washington University School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, antibody treatment, spike protein, protection, primates
Summary of Study: Passive transfer of two neutralizing antibodies (COV2-2130 and COV2-2381) given prophylactically -- either individually or in combination (combination designated ADM03820) by intravenous or intramuscular route conferred virological protection in a NHP model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and ADM03820 potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in vitro.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.09.27.462074
Contact Info: Dan Barouch: dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu; James Crowe: james.crowe@vumc.org
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.09.27.462074v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V.; Harvard Medical School; Lucidity Biomedical Consulting; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard; Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, adenovirus vector, immunogenicity, protective efficacy, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Ad26.COV2.S vaccine confers durable protection against replication of SARS-CoV-2 in the lungs that is predicted by the levels of Spike-binding and neutralizing antibodies, indicating that Ad26.COV2.S could confer durable protection in humans and immunological correlates of protection may enable the prediction of durability of protection.
References: PMID: 34620860 / doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-26117-x
Contact Info: Roland Zahn: RZahn@its.jnj.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-26117-x
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: COVAXX, Inc.; United Biomedical Inc., Asia; United BioPharma; United Biomedical Inc., USA; Academia Sinica; University of Texas Medical Branch; Galveston National Laboratory
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, multitope protein-peptide vaccine, immunogenicity, protection, mice, rats, Guinea pigs, primates
Summary of Study: With a Phase 1 trial ongoing in Taiwan and additional trials planned worldwide, UB-612 is a highly promising and differentiated vaccine candidate for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 transmisison and COVID-19 disease.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.11.30.399154
Contact Info: Chang Yi Wang: cywang@unitedbiomedical.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.30.399154v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Duke University; UNC Chapel Hill; 3M Corporate Research Materials Laboratory; Infectious Disease Research Institute; California National Primate Research Center; and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccine, infants, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Infant rhesus macaques were vaccinated with an mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, similar to the Moderna vaccine, or an S protein plus TLR7/8 agonist-based vaccine. Both vaccines induced profound induction of neutralizing antibody titers, memory B cells responses, and SARS-CV-2 specific CD4+ T cell responses that were long-lasting, all while limiting vaccine related toxicity.
References: PMID: 34131024 / doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abj3684
Contact Info: Kristina De Paris: abelk@med.unc.edu
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciimmunol.abj3684?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_i…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID, Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT< and Harvard, University of Duisburg-Essen, Harvard University, Emory Vaccine Center, Emory National Primate Research Center, and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, protein subunit vaccine, soluble prefusion-stabilized spike trimers, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Soluble prefusion-stablized spike protein trimers (preS DTM) from SARS-CoV-2 were formulated with the adjuvant AS03 and administered twice to NHPs. Two days after challenge, vaccinated NHPs showed rapid control of viral replication in both the upper and lower airways. These data indicate that antibodies induced by the AS03-adjuvanted preS dTM vaccine were sufficient to mediate protection against SARS-CoV-2 in NHPs and that rapid anamnestic antibody responses in the lung may be a key mechanism for protection.
References: PMID: 34315825 / doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abi4547
Contact Info: Robert Seder: rseder@mail.nih.gov
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/scitranslmed.abi4547?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Celltech Pharmed Co.; Iran University of Medical Sciences; University of Iran; Tarbiat Modares University; Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology; and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA-vaccine, lipid nanoparticle, spike protein, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: A novel mRNA-LNP vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 was developed and preclinically evaluated, revealing that it was efficient enough to induce hgih level production of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in mice and rhesus macaque monkeys.
References: PMID: 34579244 / doi: 10.3390/vaccines9091007
Contact Info: Alireza Sohi: nanosohi@strc.ac.ir; Jafar Kiani: kiani.ja@iums.ac.ir; Ehsan Arefian: arefian@ut.ac.ir; Arezou Khosrojerdi: arezou.khosrojerdi@modares.ac.ir; Mohammad Zim: mk.zim73@ut.ac.ir
URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/9/9/1007
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis School of Medicine, The Rockefeller University, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, DMID/NIAID/NIH, Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, therapeutic interventions, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Study provides proof-of-concept in support of further clinical development of monoclonal antibodies C135-LS and C144-LS against COVID-19 during early infection.
References: PMID: 34228761 / doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009688
Contact Info: Koen Van Rompay: kkvanrompay@ucdavis.edu; Michel Nussenzweig: nussen@rockefeller.edu; J. Rachel Reader: rreader@ucdavis.edu
URL: https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1009688
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: EcoHealth Alliance; Deakin University; Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (Dhaka, Bangladesh); University of Dhaka; Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, meta analysis, virus transmission, public health, susceptible animal species, primates
Summary of Study: The continuing spillover and spillback of SARS-CoV-2 in a wide range of animals in farming, captive and free-ranging interfaces make inferences for human and animal health, welfare and conservation. Pets, farmed and captive wild animals should be vaccinated in accordance with vaccination in humans.
References: PMID: 34694705 / doi: 10.111/tbed.14356
Contact Info: Ariful Islam: arif@ecohealthalliance.org
URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tbed.14356
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Harvard Medical School; Walter Reed National Military Medical Center; Bioqual; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; Henry Jackson Foundation; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, live oral vaccine, gastrointestinal tract, pathology, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Post-pyloric inoculation of live SARS-CoV-2 is weakly immunogenic and confers partial protection against respiratory SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques.
References: doi: 10.1128/JVI.01599-21
Contact Info: Dan Barouch: dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu
URL: https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/JVI.01599-21?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Duke University Medical Center, UNC- Chapel Hill, Louisiana State Univ., Infectious Disease Institute (Seattle, WA), Moderna, NIAID, California National Primate Research Center, Cornell Weill Medical College
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccine, nanoparticles, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are well-tolerated and highly immunogenic in infant rhesus macaques.
References: PMID: 33851156 / doi: 10.1101/2021.04.05.438479
Contact Info: Kristina De Paris: abelk@med.unc.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.04.05.438479v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China; Chinese Academy of Sciences; Nanjing Medical University; Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology; Jiangsu Rec-biotechnology Col Ltd.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing antibodies, immunization, spike protein, immunogenicity, rabbits, primates
Summary of Study: The immunogenic data derived from immunization with a combination of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and NTD demonstrate the feasility of eliciting robust targeted immune profiles by using antibody-guided vaccine design.
References: PMID: 34676098 / doi: 10.1093/nsr/nwab053
Contact Info: Xiangxi Wang: xiangxi@ibp.ac.cn; Cheng-Feng Qin: qincf@bmi.ac.cn; Feng-Cai Zhu: jszfc@vip.sina.com
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083607/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Harvard Medical School; Universite paris-Saclay/Inserm/Cea; Pereman School of Medicine; Novartis Gene Therapies; Boston University School of Medicine; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard; and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, AAV-vaccine candidates, immune response, mice, primates
Summary of Study: Studies of the AAV-based vaccine candidate AC1 support its potential to protect from COVID-19 disease and infection from a single-dose immunization; may lead to highly durable immunogenicity; and is stable at ambient temperature for storage for several weeks. The combination of these WHO-specific key attributes have not been met by any of the currently approved vaccines. Continued development of second-generation vaccine candidates such at AC1 is needed.
References: PMID: 34428428 / doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.08.002
Contact Info: Roger LeGrand: roger.le-grand@cea.fr; Luk Vandenberghe: luk_vandenberghe@meei.harvard.edu
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1931312821003784?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Sciences; Shenzhen Kangtai Biotechnology Co., Ltd.; Academy of Military Medical Sciences; Zhenzhou University; National Institutes for Food and Drug Control; Henan Normal University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, chimeric spike protein, humoral immune response, pathology, mice, primates
Summary of Study: The strategy of chimerica expression SARS-CoV-2 S RBD in SARS-CoV represents a new design for other vaccine platforms.
References: PMID: 34759261 / doi: 10.1038/s41392-021-00797-9
Contact Info: Shuguang Duo: duoshuguang@ioz.ac.cn
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41392-021-00797-9
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: MIT, Harvard Medical School, Vaccine Analytics and Formulation Center (Univ. of Kansas), Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine (Tufts Univ.), SpyBiotech Ltd., Bioqual, Bill & Melinda Gates Fdtn.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, protein subunit vaccine, manufacturing, preclinical testing, primates
Summary of Study: A modular protein subunit vaccine candidate elicits a strong immune response in cynomolgus macaques and protects against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. This vaccine candidate is currently being tested in clinical trials (ANZCTR Registration number ACTRN12620000817943).
References: PMID: 34282417 / doi: 10.1101/2021.07.13.452251
Contact Info: Dan Barouch: abarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu; J. Christopher Love: clove@mit.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.07.13.452251v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Tehran, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Karolinska Institute, University of Rochester Medical Center, Toyko University of Science, University of Veterinary Medicine (Vienna)
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, immune response, reinfection, recovery, primates
Summary of Study: Review paper proposing a new strategy to predict the potential of reinfection in each identified category. This classification may help to distribute resources more meticulously to determine: Who needs to be serologically tested for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, what percentage of the population is immune to the virus, and who needs to be vaccinated.
References: PMID: 33520309 / doi: 10.1016/jare.2020.12.013
Contact Info: Younes Aftabi: aftably@tbzmed.ac.ir; Sasan Fereidouni: sasan.fereidouni@vetmeduni.ac.at
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2090123220302630?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: California National Primate Research Center; School of Medicine, UC Davis; Vitalant Research Institute; University of Colorado School of Medicine; University of California, Irvine; and others.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, convalescent plasma, intratracheal and intranasal routes, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: While administration of convalescent plasma (CCP) did not result in a detectable reduction in virus replication in the respiratory tract, it significantly reduced lung inflammation.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.09.01.458520
Contact Info: Koen Van Rompay: kkvanrompay@ucdavis.edu; Michael Busch: mbusch@vitalant.org; J. Rachel Reader: rreader@ucdavis.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.09.01.458520v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Institute for Basic Science (IBS) (Repblic of Kores), Eulji University School of Medicine, Seol National University Hospital, Jeonbuk National University Medical School, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, nasal ciliated cells, virus tropism, primates
Summary of Study: Nasal multiciliated epithelial cells are th emain target for SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in the upper airway during the early stages of COVID-19, implying that targeting nasal ciliated cells could be an ideal strategy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 propagation.
References: PMID: 34003804 / doi: 10.1172/JCI148517
Contact Info: Ji Hoon Ahn: ahnadun@kaist.ac.kr; JungMo Kim: jmkim@ibs.re.kr; Seon Pyo Hong: sp_hong@kaist.ac.kr; Young Tae Kim: ytkim@snu.ac.kr, Chang-Seop Lee: lcsmd@jbnu.ac.kr
URL: https://www.jci.org/articles/view/148517
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Shanghai Jiao Tong University; Westlake University, China; University of Texas, medical Branch; Jecho Biopharmaceuticals Co.; China CDC; Zhengzhou University People's Hospital; Jecho Laboratories (Frederick, MD)
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, monoclonal antibody, virus genomic variants, spike protein, mice, primates
Summary of Study: This report characterizes the therapeutic antibodies specific to the tip of spike against SARS-CoV-2 and suggests the potential of antibody treatment with 2G1 to bring clinical benefit to COVID-19 patients.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.09.24.461616
Contact Info: Lei Han: lei.han@jechobio.com; Hua Jiang: hua.jiang@jecholabs.com; Yueqing Xie: jecholabs.com; Qiang Zhou: zhouqiang@westlake.edu.cn; Jianwei Zhu: jianweiz@sjtu.edu.cn
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.09.24.461616v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Harvard Medical School; Universite Paris-Saclay, Inserm; Pereman School of Medicine; Novartis Gene Therapies; Boston University School of Medicine; Institute Pasteur; Mass General Brigham Innovation; Albamunity
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, AAV-based vaccine, immunogenicity, thermostability, mice, primates
Summary of Study: AAVrh32.33 technology demonstrated its utilitiy as a preventative vaccine for COVID19, and its unique attributes may be applicable to other pathogens or immunization targets.
References: PMID: 34428428 / doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.08.002
Contact Info: Luk Vandenberghe: luk_vandenberghe@meei.harvard.edu; Roger Le Grand: roger.le-grand@cea.fr
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1931312821003784?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Emory National Primate Research Center/Emory University; Emory School of Medicine; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard; The University of Texas Medical Branch; 3M Corporate Research Materials Laboratory; and others.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, receptor-binding domain subunit vaccine, neutralizing antibody, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: This study demonstrated the potential benefits of RBD trimer as an immunogen for COVID-19 vaccine using mice and macaque models. Future studies will investigate the durability of the vaccine-induced immune responses and what parameters lead to protection.
References: PMID: 34117252 / doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-23942-y
Contact Info: Rama Rao Amara: ramara@emory.edu
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-23942-y
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Aribia; Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, MGM Dental College and Hospital, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Himachal Institute of Dental Sciences, Panineeya Mahavidyalaya
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, immune response, animal models, meta analysis, mice, hamsters, ferrets, cats, dogs, primates
Summary of Study: This systematic review found that animal models only mimic limited signs and symptoms experienced in COVID infection as compared to infections in humans, yet are still essential to understand the pathogenesis, transmissibility or viral particles, and vaccine testing.
References: PMID: 34447038 / doi: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_749_20
Contact Info: Muhamood Moothedath: drmuhamoodmoothedath@gmail.com
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375911/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tsukuba, Japan; Osaka University; Gunma University; The University of Tokyo; University of Wisconsin-Madison; Mie University Graduate School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pathogenicity, old animals, pathology, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: The COVID-19 cynomolgus monkey model reflects the pathophysiology of humans and would be useful for elucidating the pathophysiology and developing therapeutic agents and vaccines.
References: PMID: 34625475 / doi: 10.1073/pnas.2104847118
Contact Info: Yasuhiro Yasutomi: yasutomi@nibiohn.go.jp
URL: https://www.pnas.org/content/118/43/e2104847118.long
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: California National Primate Research Center; University of California, Davis; Vitalant Research Institute; University of California, Irvine School of Medicine; DMID/NIAID/NIH; University of California, San Francisco
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, convalescent plasma, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: While administration of CCP did not result in a detectable reduction in virus replication in the respiratory tract, it significantly reduced lung inflammation. in macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2.
References: PMID: 34494025 / doi: 10.1101/2021.09.01.458520
Contact Info: Koen Van Rompay: kkvanrompay@ucdavis.edu; Rachel Reader: rreader@ucdavis.edu; Michael Busch: mbusch@vitalant.org
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.09.01.458520v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Akston Biosciences Corp.; Biomere Biomedical Research Models; Feigin ABSL-3 Facility, Baylor College of Medicine; BIOQUAL; California National Primate Research Center; Sinclair Research Center; Pharmaceutical Research Associates Group B.V.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, viral spike protein, immunogenicity, prophylaxis, Fc-fusion, mice, primates
Summary of Study: Preclinical studies support the initiation of Phase I clinical studies with adjuvanted AKS-452 with the expectation that this room-temperature stable, Fc-fusion subunit vaccine can be rapidly and inexpensively manufactured to provide billions of doses per year especially in regions where the cold-chain is difficult to maintain.
References: PMID: 34642088 / doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.09.077
Contact Info: Todd Zion: todd.zion@akstonbio.com
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X21012949?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: BGI-Shenzhen; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences; Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health; University of Copenhagen, Huazhen Biosciences, Kunming University of Science and Technology; University of Cambridge, and others.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, transcriptome, virus entry, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: The transcriptome of nine organs at single-cell resolution was profiled in monkeys.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.04.10.022103
Contact Info: Xun Xu: xuxun@genomics.cn; Yong Hou: houyong@genomics.cn; Miguel Estaban: miguel@gibh.ac.cn
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.10.022103v2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: pigtail macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tulane National Primate Research Center; Tulane University School of Medicine; Florida State University; University of Texas Medical Branch; Perelman School of Medicine; Duke University Medical Center; Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, respiratory viral challenge, immune response, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection of pigtail macaques recapitulates important features of COVID-19 and reveals new immune and viral dynamics and thus may serve as a useful animal model for studying pathogenesis and testing vaccines and therapeutics.
References: PMID: 34929014 / doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010162
Contact Info: Nicholas Maness: nmaness@tulane.edu
URL: https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1010162
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: tamarins, marmosets, howler monkeys, titi monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Brazil; Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieria Dourado, Brazil; Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Brazil; Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Brazil; Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil; Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein; Instituto Butanta; Departamento de Vigilancia Epidemiologica de Sao Jose do Rio Preto; New Mexico State University; The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston; Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane, Brazil
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, wild animals, molecular and serological tests, primates
Summary of Study: Although no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected, continued surveillance of NHPs in this region is warranted and may identify geographic areas or particular NHP species prone to spillover.
References: PMID: 34696363 / doi: 10.3390/v13101933
Contact Info: Marcus Vinicius Guimaraes de Lacerda: marcuslacerda.br@gmail.com; Mauricio Lacerda Nogueira: mnogueira@famerp.br
URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/13/10/1933
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Pasteur Institute of Iran; Amirabad Virology Laboratory; Tarbiat Modares University; University of Tehran; Islamic Azad University; Hamadan University of Medical Sciences; Darou Pakhsh Pharmaceutical; Arena Diagnostic; and others.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, inactivated whole-virus vaccine, safety, immune response, guinea pig, rabbit, mice, primates
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques were immunised with the two-dose schedule of 5 or 3 ug of the B1V1-CovIran vaccine and showed highly efficient protection against 10^4 TCID50 of SARS-CoV-2 intratracheal challenge compared with the control group.
References: PMID: 34699647 / doi: 10.1002/rmv.2305
Contact Info: Reza Aalizadeh: aalizadehreza19@gmail.com; Hasan Jalili: hjalili@ut.ac.ir
URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rmv.2305
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane University, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, LSU Health Science Center, Julius-Maximilians-Universitat Wurzburg, and more
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pulmonary vascular endotheliosis, perivascular inflammation, rodents and primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 causes endotheliitis via both infection and infection-mediated immune activation, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 disease.
References: PMID: 34335981 / doi: 10.7150/thno.61810
Contact Info: Jay Kolls: jkolls1@tulane.edu; Fengming Liu: fliu6@tulane.edu; Jay Rappaport: jrappaport@tulane.edu
URL: https://www.thno.org/v11p8076.htm
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane University, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, LSU Health Science Center, Julius-Maximilians-Universitat Wurzburg, and more
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, endotheliopathy, inflammation, primates, mice
Summary of Study: In addition to pneumocytes, SARS-CoV-2 also directly infects mature vascular endothelial cells in vivo and ex vivo which may contribute to cardiovascular complications in SARS-CoV-2 infection, including multipleorgan failure.
References: PMID: 34307198 / doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.701278
Contact Info: Xuebin Qin: xqin2@tulane.edu; Suleyman Ergun: sueleyman.erguen@uni-wuerzburg.de
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292147/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Institute of Food and Drug Control (Beijing, China), Yunnan Provincial Infectious Disease Hospital, Yunnan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Kunming Third People's Hospital
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, inactivated virus vaccine, immune response, pathology, mice, primates
Summary of Study: Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, produced by sequential inactivation with formaldehyde followed by propiolactone, was shown to be effective against SARS-Co-V 2 challenge in rhesus macaques.
References: PMID: 34462721 / doi: 10.1016/j.omtm.2021.08.005
Contact Info: Changgui Li: changguili@aliyun.com; Qihan Li: liqihan@imbcams.com.cn; Longding Liu: liuld@imbcams.com.cn
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2329050121001315?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Emory National Primate Research Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, Texas Children's Center for Vaccine Development, La Jolla Institute for Immunology, and others.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, vaccines and adjuvants, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: The adjuvant 3M-052-alum (previously shown to induce better immune responses against HIV) may be a way to improve the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
References: PMID: 34266981 / doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abh3634
Contact Info: Sudhir Pai Kasturi: skastur@emory.edu; Maria Elena Bottazzi: bottazzi@bcm.edu
URL: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciimmunol.abh3634?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_i…
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Harvard Medical School; CureVac AG; Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Bioqual; Washington University School of Medicine; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccine, immunogenicity, protective efficacy, primates
Summary of Study: Optimization of non-coding regions can greatly improve the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a non-modified mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in nonhuman primates.
References: PMID: 34794169 / doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-04231-6
Contact Info: Dan Barouch: dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu; Susanne Rauch: Susanne.rauch@curevac.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-04231-6
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard; Novavax; University of Duisburg-Essen; MIT; Texas Biomedical Research Institute; University of Maryland School of Medicine; Duke University Medical Center; La Jolla Institute for Immunology; and others
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, humoral immune response, vaccine-induced antibody fingerprint, protection, primates
Summary of Study: Data presented suggest that a single dose may prevent disease via combined Fc/Fab functions but that two doses may be essential to block further transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging varriants.
References: PMID: 34485950 / doi: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100405
Contact Info: Gale Smith: gsmith@novavax.com; Galit Alter: galter@mgh.harvard.edu
URL: https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1009701
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: treatment
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College; Genuine Biotech, Inc.; Wuhan Research Center for Infectious Diseases and Cancer; The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Chinese Medicine; Henan Provincial Peoples Hospital; Henan Normal University; Zhengzhou University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Azvudine, preclinical studies, Phase III trial, humans, primates
Summary of Study: Treating SARS-CoV-2 infected rhesus macaques with FNC reduced viral load, recuperated the thymus, improved lymphocyte profiles, alleviated inflammation and organ damage, and lessened ground-glass opacities in chest X-ray.
References: PMID: 34873151 / doi: 10.1038/s41392-021-00835-6
Contact Info: Zhenshun Cheng: chzs1990@163.com; Jun-Biao Chang: changjunbiao@zzu.edu.cn; Jian-Dong Jiang: jiang.jdong@163.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41392-021-00835-6
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Liverpool; NIHR Health Protection Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections; University of Bristol; IK Health Security Agency; Mahidol University; Alder Hey Children's Hospital; Imperial College London; The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh; Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust; University of Oxford; A*STAR, Singapore.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, viral genomic variants, variant prediction, primates
Summary of Study: The selection pressure at two positions (the P323L and the D614G substitutions in the in NSP12 and the spike protein, respectively) was evaluated in two non-human primate models. The data in this study indicates that in some cases it may be possible to predict the emergence of a new dominant viral genome sequence and hence a new variant.
References: doi: 10.1101/2021.12.23.474030
Contact Info: Julian Hiscox: junian.hiscox@liverpool.ac.uk
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.12.23.474030v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: prevention
NPRC/Institute: Universite Paris-Saclay, Inserm, CEA, Center for Immunology of Viral, Auto-immune, Hematological and Bacterial diseases; University of Amsterdam; Universite de Paris, INSERM, IAME; University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; Galveston National Laboratory; Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai; The Scripps Research Institute; Duke Human Vaccine Institute & Department of Surgery; Nexelis; The University of Maryland School of Medicine; Institut Pasteur; Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing antibody, prophylactic, pathology, mice, hamsters, primates
Summary of Study: COVA1-18, a neutralizing antibody highly potent against the B.1.1.7 isolate, has a strong antiviral activity in three preclinical models and could be a valuable candidate for further clinical evaluation.
References: PMID: 34671037 / doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-26354-0
Contact Info: Rogier Sanders: r.w.sanders@amsterdamumc.nl; Marit van Gils: m.j.vangils@amsterdamumc.nl; Roger Le Grand: roger.le-grand@cea.fr
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-26354-0
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Washington; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hil; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; Stanford University School of Medicine; Institut Pasteur and CNRS UMR 3569; New Iberia Research Center and Department of Biology; Washington National Primate Research Center; University of Texas at Austin; GSK; Humabs Biomed SA; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation\
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, vaccine design, spike glycoprotein, receptor-binding domain, self-assembling nanoparticle, sarbecovirus, primates
Summary of Study: This study provides proof of the principle that multivalent sarbecovirus RBD-NPs induce heterotypic protection and motivates advancing such broadly protective sarbecovirus vaccines to the clinic.
References: PMID: 34619077 / doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.09.015
Contact Info: Neil King: neil@ipd.uw.edu; David Veesler: dveesler@uw.edu
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S009286742101062X?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Shanghai Zerun Biotechnology Co., Ltd.; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College; Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University; Wuhan University; National Institute for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC)
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, recombinant vaccine, spike trimer, immunogenicity, mice, hamsters, primates
Summary of Study: A recombinant spike protein vaccine adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide and CpG 7909 showed high immunogenicity and good protective efficacy in preclinical studies, supporting further clinical trials.
References: PMID: 34750014 / doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.10.066
Contact Info: Ge Liu: liuge@walvax.com; Jiangning Liu: liujn@cnilas.org.cn; Youhua Xie: yhxie@fudan.edu.cn; Zhongyu Hu: huzy67@163.com
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X21013992?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine; Washington University; NCI/NIH; BIOQUAL; Texas Biomedical Research Institute; Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, nanoparticle protein vaccine, humoral and cellular immune responses, virus variants, primates
Summary of Study: A ferritin nanoparticle vaccine displaying the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein adjuvanted with Army Liposomal Formulation QS-21 induces robust and broad antibody and T cell responses, as well as protection against viral replication and lung pathology following high-dose respiratory tract challenge with SARS-CoV-2.
References: PMID: 34470866 / doi: 10.1073/pnas.2106433118
Contact Info: Kayvon Modjarrad: kmodjarrad@eidresearch.org; Diane Bolton: dbolton@hivresearch.org
URL: https://www.pnas.org/content/118/38/e2106433118.long
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Amsterdam; INSERM, CEA; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, RIVM; Public Health Service of Amsterdam; Tergooi Hospital; Amsterdam Neuroscience, AMC; Amsterdam Infectoin & Immunity, AMC; Amsterdam Infection & Immunity, VUmc; The University of Melbourne; Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, cross-reactive antibodies, human coronaviruses, primates
Summary of Study: The results from this study on the presence and specificity of cross-reactive antibodies to other hCoVs after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination emphasize the feasibility of broad coronavirus vaccines and may guide future vaccine designs.
References: PMID: 34812143 / doi: 10.7554/eLife.70330
Contact Info: Marit J van Gils: m.j.vangils@amsterdamumc.nl
URL: https://elifesciences.org/articles/70330
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: marmosets, howler monkeys
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Instituto Federal do Norte de Minas Gerais, Brazil; Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Brazil; Centro Estadual de Vigilancia em Saude; Universidade de Brasilia; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; State University of Santa Cruz; Universidade Federal de Tocantins
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, wild animals, RT-qPCR, primates
Summary of Study: 51 NHPs were examined for signs of SARS-CoV-2; 89 samples of various tissues were analyzed, with no SARS-CoV-2 positive samples detected, regardless of NHP species, tissue, habitat, municipalities or state/biome tested.
References: PMID: 34843021 / doi: 10.1007/s10393-021-01569-1
Contact Info: Danilo Bretas de Oliveira: danilo.bretas@ufvjm.edu.br
URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10393-021-01569-1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2021
Study Type/Review: prevention
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Sciences; State Key Laboratory of Pathogen an dBiosecutiry, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing; Sinocelltech Ltd., National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing; Institute for Biological Product Control, Beijing
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, monoclonal antibody, preclinical safety evaluation, cryo-EM structure, mice, primates
Summary of Study: Increasing access to panels of authentic neutralizing monoclonal antibodies will facilitate structure-function studies to unpick the underlying biological processes of virus-host interactions, and provide molecular basis for applying HB27 for potential COVID-19 treatment.
References: PMID: 34676096 / doi: 10.1093/nsr/nwaa297
Contact Info: Cheng-Feng Qin: qincf@bmi.ac.cn; Xiangxi Wang: xiangxi@ibp.ac.cn; Youchun Wang: wangyc@nifdc.org.cn; Zihe Rao: raozh@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liangzhi Xie: liangzhi@yahoo.com
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798916/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Key Laboratory of Animal Immunology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Immunology, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002, China
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, ACE2
Summary of Study: Authors conducted sequence and structural analyses of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) from different species, which sheds some light on cross-species receptor usage of 2019-nCoV.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.02.013
Contact Info: Li R, et al.; correspondence to Gaiping Zhang (zhanggaip@126.com)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32092392/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: pigtail macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, at The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, vaccine, receptor binding domain, mice, primates
Summary of Study: Prime-boost protein subunit vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are highly immunogenic in mice and macaques
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.09.01.278630
Contact Info: Hyon-Xhi Tan et al; Adam K Wheatley, awheatley@unimelb.edu.au
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.01.278630v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: COVAXX, United Biomedical< Inc., United BioPharma, Academic Sinica, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston National Library
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, multitope protein-peptide vaccine, immune response, toxicity, protection, guinea pigs, rats, primates
Summary of Study: The authors have developed and demonstrated proof of concept for UB-612, a novel multitope protein-peptide vaccine being rapidly advanced in clinical trials for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. Extremely high levels of neutralizing antibodies were shown and Th1 prone immune response was induced by the vaccine that protected animals, challenged by a high dose of SARS-CoV-2, without induction of immunopathology in the lungs.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.11.30.399154
Contact Info: Chang Yi Wang: cywang@unitedbiomedical.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.30.399154v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Division of Pathogenesis and Disease Regulation, Department of Pathology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pathogenicity, primates
Summary of Study: Neutralizing antibody-dependent and -independent immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 in cynomolgus macaques
References: doi:10.1101/2020.08.18.256446
Contact Info: yasushii@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.18.256446v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, China
Keywords: coronavirus, infectious disease, respiratory syndrome, animal model, vaccine, drug discovery
Summary of Study: The authors reviewed a variety of animal models, including NHPs. Individual NHP studies are represented elsewhere in this document.
References: doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1764871; PMID: 32378471
Contact Info: Yuan L, et al.; correspondence to Ningshao Xia (nsxia@xmu.edu.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32378471/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys, rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, airborne transmission, primates
Summary of Study: Development of a Coronavirus Disease 2019 Nonhuman Primate Model Using Airborne Exposure
References: doi:10.1101/2020.06.26.174128
Contact Info: sara.c.johnston2.civ@mail.mil, aysegul.nalca.civ@mail.mil
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.26.174128v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science & Peking Union Medical College
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, immune response
Summary of Study: Immunization of rhesus macaques with a SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine elicited effective immunity with indexes of humoral and cellular reactions.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.08.04.235747
Contact Info: Hongbo Chen, et al; correspondence to Quhan Li, liqihan@imbcams.com.cn or Longding Liu, liuld@imgcams.com.cn
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.04.235747v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, nonhuman primate, neutralizing antibodies
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques were inoculated intratracheally with SARS-CoV-2/WH-09/human/2020/CHN. Neutralizing antibodies against SARS CoV-2 might protect rhesus macaques which have undergone an initial infection from reinfection during early recovery days.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.03.13.990226; Preprint
Contact Info: Bao L, et al.; correspondence to Chuan Qin (qinchuan@pumc.edu.cn)
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.13.990226v2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Institute of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, therapeutics, an iodine complex, primates
Summary of Study: Renessans, an iodine complex which has proven in vitro antiretroviral activity, may result in early clearance of SARS-CoV-2.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.17.377432
Contact Info: Tahir Yaqub: tahiryaqub@uvas.edu.pk
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.17.377432v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques, marmosets
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, nonhuman primate, viral shedding, viral genome
Summary of Study: Old world and new world monkeys were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Rhesus was most susceptible to infection, followed by cynomolgus and marmoset.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.04.08.031807; Preprint
Contact Info: Lu S, et al.; correspondence to Xiaozhong Peng (pengxiaozhong@pumc.edu.cn)
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.08.031807v1.abstract
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC), Rijswijk, The Netherlands
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, post-acute phase, pulmonary disease, primates
Summary of Study: Study provides a detailed description of the pathogenesis of a low-passage SARS-CoV-2 isolate in two macaque species (rhesus and cynomolgus) and suggests both species represent an equally good model for COVID-19 prophylactic and therapeutic treatments.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.05.369413
Contact Info: Ernst. J. Verschoor: verschoor@bprc.nl
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.05.369413v2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: pigtail macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Washington, Washington National Primate Research Center
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, vaccine, RNA, replicon, nanoparticle, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: Single-dose intramuscular vaccination with LION/repRNA-CoV2S elicited antibody responses that potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 in pigtail macaques.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.05.28.121640; Preprint
Contact Info: Erasmus JH, et al.; correspondence to Deborah Fuller (fullerdh@uw.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32511417/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, focus forming assay, viral growth kinetics
Summary of Study: Characterization of cells susceptible to SARS-COV-2 and methods for detection of neutralizing antibody by focus forming assay
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.08.20.259838
Contact Info: E. Taylor Stone et al; Amelia K. Pinto, amelia.pinto@health.slu.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.20.259838v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: SL VaxiGen Inc., Genexine Inc., Sorea Bio Park, Scongnam, Republic of Korea
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, DNA-based vaccine candidate, GX-19, immunization, primates
Summary of Study: Vaccination with vaccine candidate GX-19 elicits a concurrent humoral response and Th1-biased immune responses in both mice and non-human primate models. In NHPs this response includes neutralizing antibodies that provide potent protective efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.09.334136
Contact Info: Young Chul Sung: ycsung@genexine.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.10.09.334136v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Baruch S. Blumberg Institute
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, animal ACE2, receptor, entry, furin cleavage, animal hosts
Summary of Study: Receptor activity of ACE2 was examined in 14 mammal species, including the rhesus macaque. Rhesus exhibited the highest ACE2 receptor activity.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.04.19.048710; Preprint
Contact Info: Zhao X, et al.; correspondence to Xuesen Zhao (zhaoxuesen@ccmu.edu.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32661139/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, marmosets
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, a computational pipeline, the binding affinity ACE2, mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians
Summary of Study: Identifying zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2 by modeling the binding affinity between Spike receptor-binding domain and host ACE2
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.09.11.293449
Contact Info: Yang Zhang: zhng@umich.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.11.293449v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, crab-eating macaques, marmosets
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, University College London, London
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, receptor binding, 215 vertebrate species
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 spike protein predicted to form complexes with host receptor protein orthologues from a broad range of mammals
References: doi:10.1101/2020.05.01.072371
Contact Info: CA Orengo: c.orengo@ucl.ac.uk
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.01.072371v6
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, crab-eating macaques, marmosets
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Primate Research Center, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pathogenesis, three species of primates comparison
Summary of Study: Three species were inoculated (new world: intratracheally, intranasally, and on conjunctiva; old world: intranasally) and showed varying clinical and pathological signs of the disease. M. mulatta was the most suspectable followed by Callithrix jacchus and Macaca fascicularis.
References: doi:10.1101/2020.04.08.031807
Contact Info: Lu, Shuaiyao; pengxiaozhong@pumc.edu.cn; lhq@imbcams.com.cn; kecw1965@aliyun.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.08.031807v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, S-protein-based linear B-cell epitope candidates, several species
Summary of Study: Four top prioritized linear B-cell epitopes in the hotspot regions of S protein can specifically bind with serum antibodies from rhesus monkeys inoculated with different SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates or a patient recovering from COVID-19. This study suggests that the four linear B-cell epitopes are potentially important candidates for serological assay or vaccine development.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.13.422550
Contact Info: Jing Zhang: jz2716@buaa.edu.cn/Hui Wang: geno0109@vip.sina.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.13.422550v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Harvard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and more
Keywords: scRNA-seq, interferon, ISG, ACE2, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, influenza, non-human primate, human, mouse
Summary of Study: The authors analyzed human, macaque, and mouse scRNA-seq data sets across health and disease to uncover putative targets of SARS-CoV-2 among tissue-resident cell subsets. Data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could exploit species-specific interferon-driven upregulation of ACE2, a tissue-protective mediator during lung injury, to enhance infection.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.035; PMID: 32413319
Contact Info: Ziegler CGK, et al.; correspondence to Jose Ordovas-Montanes (jose.ordovas-montanes@childrens.harvard.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32413319/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys, cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pre-screening strategies, primates
Summary of Study: Pre-exposure to SARS-CoV-2 affects biomarker responses in animal models, highlighting a need for robust pre-screening protocols prior to medical countermeasure studies.
References: doi:10.1101/2020.07.06.189803
Contact Info: Keersten M. Ricks;timothy.d.minogue.civ@mail.mil
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.06.189803v2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Novavax, Inc. 21 Firstfield Road, Gaithersburg, MD, 20878
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, subunit vaccine, pulmonary disease, primates
Summary of Study: Cynomolgus macaques immunized with NVX-CoV2373 and the saponin-based Matrix-M adjuvant induced antibody that was neutralizing and blocked binding to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor. Following intranasal and intratracheal challenge with SARS-CoV-2, immunized macaques were protected against upper and lower infection and pulmonary disease.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.18.256578
Contact Info: Gale Smith at gsmith@Novavax.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.18.256578v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Shenzhen Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, China
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, adenovirus vectored vaccines, immunization, primates
Summary of Study: Two novel adenovirus vectored COVID-19 vaccines were produced, which, when used in succession, elicited robust humoral and T-cell immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in mice and rhesus macaques. These two vaccines are being planned for clinical phase I/II trials after an extensive safety evaluation has been carried out in pre-clinical animal examination.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.28.311480
Contact Info: Chengyao Li: chengyaoli@hotmail.com; Tingting L: aple-ting-007@163.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.28.311480v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Oregon National Primate Research Center, Harvard, and others
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, protective immunity
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques were inoculated intranasally and intratracheally with SARS-CoV-2, which induced humoral and cellular immune responses and provided protective efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 rechallenge. These data raise the possibility that immunologic approaches to the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 may be effective.
References: doi: 10.1126/science.abc4776; PMID: 32434946
Contact Info: Chandrashekar A, et al.; correspondence to Dan H. Barouch (dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32434946/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Oregon National Primate Research Center, Harvard, and others
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, vaccine, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: A series of DNA vaccine candidates expressing different forms of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein were evaluated in rhesus macaques. Vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody titers correlated with protective efficacy, demonstrating vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in NHPs.
References: doi: 10.1126/science.abc6284; PMID: 32434945
Contact Info: Yu, et al.; correspondence to Dan H. Barouch (dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32434945/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing, China
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, recombinant subunit vaccine, neutralization potency, aged animals, primates
Summary of Study: Authors developed a pilot scale pipeline producing a recombinant subunit vaccine (RBD-Fc Vacc) with Receptor Binding Domain of SARS-CoV-2S protein fused with the Fc domain of human IgG1. This vaccine induced SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing antibodies in non-human primates and human ACE2 transgenic mice and is currently being assessed in randomized controlled phase I/II human clinical trials.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.29.402339
Contact Info: Yuwei Gao: gaoyuwei@gmail.com; Wenjin Wei: weiwenjin66@126.com; Zhonghu Hu: huzy67@163.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.29.402339v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, receptor sequence binding
Summary of Study: Similarities of receptor sequence binding to 2019-nCoV between humans and animals suggest a low species barrier for transmission of the virus to farm animals. Authors propose, based on the One Health model, that veterinarians and animal specialists should be involved in a cross-disciplinary collaboration in the fight against this epidemic.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2020.02.008
Contact Info: Sun J, et al.; correspondence to Jiumeng Sun (shuosu@njau.edu.cn) and Michael Veit (michael.veit@fu-berlin.de)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32359479/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center
Keywords: pathogenicity, pneumonia, rhesus macaque model, SARS-CoV-2
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 caused more severe interstitial pneumonia in old monkeys than that in young monkeys. Rhesus macaque models infected with SARS-CoV-2 provided insight into the pathogenic mechanism and facilitated the development of vaccines and therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
References: doi: 10.1002/ame2.12108
Contact Info: Yu P, et al.; correspondence to Chuan Qin (ginchaun@pumc.edu.cn) and Wenjie Tan (tanwj@ivdc.chinacdc.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32318665/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, review
NPRC/Institute: National Institute of Biologicals, Noida, India
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, many species, review
Summary of Study: This review article finds the rhesus macaque most closely resembles the SARS-CoV-2 infection observed in humans.
References: PMID: 33283030/doi: 10.1007/s13337-020-00637-4
Contact Info: Suresh Kumar: suresh.kumar@nib.gov.in
URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13337-020-00637-4
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, animal models
Summary of Study: African green monkeys were infected with a low passage isolate of SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2/INMII-Isolate/2020/Italy, the first V clade virus to be experimentally inoculated into NHPs). AGMs mimic several aspects of human disease and should thus be considered to conduct pathogenesis studies and to screen potential vaccines and therapeutics.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.05.17.100289; PMID: 32511377
Contact Info: Woolsey C, et al.; correspondence to Thomas W. Geisbert (twgeisbe@utmb.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32511377/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Wistar Institute, Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Bioqual
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, DNA vaccine, spike protein, primates
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques were inoculated with an intradermal (ID)- delivered SARS-CoV-2 spike DNA vaccine, INO-4800, inducing a T cell response and neutralizing antibody response. T and B cell responses after challenge with SARS-CoV-2 results in lower viral loads.
References: doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.225649
Contact Info: Ami Patel; kate.brodrick@inovio.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.28.225649v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Jiaotong Univ. Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, phylogeny and expression pattern of ACE2; variety of animals, including primates
Summary of Study: Using bioinformatics tools to screen for the presence of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in a variety of tissues in various animals, the authors found that the tissue presence of this enzyme marks the tissues vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pattern of infection in cynomolgus macaques was similar to that in humans.
References: PMID: 33364494/doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05725
Contact Info: Enqi Liu: liuenqi@xjtu.edu.cn
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405844020325688?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, TLR4, trimeric spike protein binding, primates
Summary of Study: The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 functions as a potent stimulus causing TLR4 activation and sepsis related abnormal responses.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.18.423427
Contact Info: Xiangxi Wang: xiangxi@idp.ac.cn/Fuping You: fupingyou@hsc.pku.edu.cn
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.18.423427v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: National Infection Service, Public Health England (PHE)
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, virus replication, lung histopathology, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 replicates in the upper and lower respiratory tract and causes pulmonary lesions in both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques, resembling the mild clinical cases of COVID-19 in humans.
References: doi:10.1101/2020.09.17.301093
Contact Info: Francisco J. Salguero et al; Miles W. Carroll, miles.carroll@phe.gov.uk
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.17.301093v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: ReiThera Sri, Rome, Italy; The University of Nottingham
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, gorilla adenovirus-vectored vaccine, primates
Summary of Study: Vaccine candidate, GRAd-COV2, is highly immunogenic in both mice and cynomolgus macaques, eliciting both functional antibodies which neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection and block Spike protein binding to the ACE2 receptor, and a robust, Th1-dominated cellular response in the periphery and in the lung.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.22.349951
Contact Info: Alessandra Vitelli: alessandra.vitelli@reithera.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.10.22.349951v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Institute of Medical Biology, Yunnan Province, China
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pathogenesis, nasal route of infection. T cells, primates
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques were infected with SARS-CoV-2 via the nasal route. Data suggested that T cell response and cytokine/chemokine changes in lungs should be considered as evaluation parameters for COVID-19 treatment and vaccine development (in addition to observation of virus shedding and pathological analysis).
References: PMID: 33180882/doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008949
Contact Info: Zhanlong He: hzl@imbcams.com.cn & Qihan Li: liqihan@imbcams.com.cn
URL: https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1008949
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pathogenesis, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling, mucus, primates
Summary of Study: Findings potentially explain the silent hypoxia formation in COVID-19 patients, and suggest a possible intervention strategy by targeting the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway.
References: PMID: 33159154/doi: 10.1038/s41422-020-00435-z
Contact Info: Bo Huang: tjhuangbo@hotmail.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41422-020-00435-z
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Clover Biopharmaceuticals, Chengdu, China
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Trimer-Tag technology, neutralizing antibodies, primates
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques immunized with adjuvanted S-Trimer were protected from SARS-CoV-2 challenge compared to vehicle controls. Trimer-Tag may be an important new platform technology for scalable production and rapid development of safe and effective subunit vaccines against current and future emerging RNA viruses.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.24.311027
Contact Info: Pen Liang: liang.peng@cloverbiopharma.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.24.311027v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Janssen Vaccines and Prevention, The Netherlands
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, adenovirus-vectored vaccine, neutralization potency, aged animals, primates
Summary of Study: The Janssen Ad26.COV2.S vaccine candidate is currently the only one evaluated as a single dose vaccination regimen in Phase 3 clinical studies. This study showed that a second vaccine dose (administered 8 weeks post the first immunization) induced a significant increase in antigen-specific binding and neutralizing antibody responses in both adult and aged rhesus macaques as compared to a single dose. These data support the initiation of a two-dose Ad26.COV2.S regimen in Phase 3 clinical trial in adults and elderly.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.17.368258
Contact Info: Roland Zahn: rzahn@its.jnj.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.17.368258v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, olive baboons, marmosets
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Southwest National Primate Research Center
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to acute infection with dynamic cellular and inflammatory flux in the lung that varies across nonhuman primate species
References: doi:10.1101/2020.06.05.136481
Contact Info: Dhiraj Kumar Singh et al; Deepak Kaushal, dkaushal@txbiomed.org
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.05.136481v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Institute of Human Virology, Guangdong, China
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, nanoparticle vaccine, primates
Summary of Study: Nanoparticle vaccines (developed by covalently conjugating the self-assembled 24-mer ferritin to the receptor binding domain (RBD) and/or heptad repeat (HR) subunits of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein) induced neutralizing antibodies, and T and B cell responses prior to boost immunization in rhesus macaques.
References: PMID: 33275896/doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2020.11.015
Contact Info: Hui Zhang: zhangh92@mail.sysu.edu.cn
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1074761320305021?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, apoptosis in post-mortem lung, pathogenesis, primates
Summary of Study: Apoptosis was examined in post-mortem lung sections from COVID-19 patients and lung tissues from NHP models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multiple-target immunofluorescence assays and Western blotting suggest both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways are activated during SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings may help to delineate a novel insight into the pathogenesis of ARDS following SARS-CoV-2 infection.
References: PMID: 33398280/doi: 10.1101/2020.12.23.424254
Contact Info: Bin Gong: bigong@utmb.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.23.424254v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Zongshan School of Medicine, Guangdong, China
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Nanoparticle Vaccines, mice and primates
Summary of Study: The nanoparticle vaccination of rhesus macaques induced neutralizing antibodies, and T and B cell responses prior to boost immunization; these responses persisted for more than three months. RBD- and HR-based nanoparticles thus present a promising vaccination approach against SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses.
References: PMID: 33275896/doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2020.11.015
Contact Info: Hui Zhang: zhangh92@mail.sysu.edu.cn
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1074761320305021?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Peking Union Medical College, Yunnan, China
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Gastrointestinal Tract, primates
Summary of Study: Both intranasal and intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 caused pneumonia and GI dysfunction in the rhesus macaque model. Inflammatory cytokines are possible connections for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 between the respiratory and digestive systems.
References: PMID: 33307034/doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.12.001
Contact Info: Xiaozhong Peng: pengxiaozhong@pumc.edu.cn
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001650852035527X?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tongji Medical College, Wuhan, China
Keywords: SARS, ACE2, receptor-binding domain, pneumonia
Summary of Study: The authors analyzed 82 representative ACE2 sequences from the 1000 sequences with the closest homology to the human ACE2 protein to identify potential SARS-CoV-2 natural and intermediate hosts, as well as susceptible animals. Results suggest that several NHPs may be intermediate hosts and most are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2.
References: doi: 10.26434/chemrxiv.12057996.v1; Preprint
Contact Info: Wu C, et al.; correspondence to Hui Li (li_hua@hust.edu.cn)
URL: https://europepmc.org/article/ppr/ppr138914
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, ACE2, convalescent plasma, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies
Summary of Study: Two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (CA1 and CB6 MAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 were isolated and tested in vitro. CB6 showed stronger neutralizing activity and was further tested in rhesus macaques at both prophylactic and treatment settings. Treatment reduced virus titers and significant protection was seen in the prophylactic group.
References: doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2381-y; PMID: 32454512
Contact Info: Shi R, et al.; correspondence to Fu-sheng Wang (fswang302@163.com)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32454512/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: ImmunityBio, NantK west, Inc., IosBio
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, hAd5 S-Fusion + N-ETSD vaccine, efficacy, primates
Summary of Study: NHP immunized with the hAd5 S-Fusion + N-ETSD vaccine generated anti-S IgG and showed inhibition in cPass and thus the presence of anti-S RBD neutralizing antibodies (nAbs).
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.12.08.416297
Contact Info: Patrick Soon-Shiong: patrick@nantworks.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.08.416297v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of California, San Francisco
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, animal models
Summary of Study: The authors reviewed a variety of animal models, including NHPs. Individual NHP studies are represented elsewhere in this document.
References: doi: 10.1111/bph.15143; PMID: 32462701
Contact Info: Cleary SJ, et al.; correspondence to Clive Page (clive.page@kcl.ac.uk)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32462701/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Remdesivir, mathematical models, primates
Summary of Study: Developed a mathematical model to explain why remdesivir has a greater antiviral effect on SARS CoV-2 in lung versus nasal passages in rhesus macaque
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.21.163550
Contact Info: Joshua Schiffer, jschiffe@fredhutch.org
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.21.163550v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, spike trimers, neutralizing antibodies, mice, primates
Summary of Study: Adjuvanted protein intramuscular immunization with SARS-CoV-2 spike trimers, stabilized in prefusion conformation, results in potent antibody responses in mice and rhesus macaque.
References: doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.228486
Contact Info: Mandolesi, Marco; daniel.sheward@ki.se, gunilla.karlsson.hedestam@ki.se, benjamin.murrell@ki.se
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.31.228486v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Sinovac Biotech, Beijing, China
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, vaccine, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques were immunized three times via the intramuscular route with medium or high doses of PiCoVacc three weeks before virus challenge. The high dose provided complete protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge; neither infection enhancement of immunopathological exacerbation was observed.
References: doi: 10.1126/science.abc1932; PMID: 32376603
Contact Info: Gao Q, et al.; correspondence to Chuan Qin (qinchuan@pumc.edu.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32376603/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: University of TX Medical Branch
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, convalescent sera, primates, viral load and disease pathology
Summary of Study: Groups of SARS-CoV-2 infected AGMs were treated with pooled convalescent sera containing either high or low to moderate anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody titers. Lower levels of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory compartments, reduced gross and histopathological lesion severity in the lungs, and reductions in several parameters associated with coagulation and inflammatory processes were observed in monkeys that received convalescent sera versus untreated controls.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.14.340091
Contact Info: Thomas Geisbert: twgeisbe@utmb.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.10.14.340091v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, review
NPRC/Institute: South Valley Univ., Qena, Egypt
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, many species, review
Summary of Study: This article reviews the possible animal reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2, as well as best suited models for further study.
References: PMID: 33363234/doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.596391
Contact Info: Mohamed Mahdy: m_mahdi@vet.svu.edu.eg
URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2020.596391/full
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Erasmus, Netherlands
Keywords: coronavirus, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, animal models
Summary of Study: The authors' study shows that SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19-like disease in macaques and provides a new model to test preventive and therapeutic strategies.
References: doi: 10.1126/science.abb7314
Contact Info: Rockx B, et al.; correspondence to Barry Rockx (b.rockx@erasmusmc.nl)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32303590/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, therapeutics, the lipoglycopeptide antibiotic, primates
Summary of Study: In both mouse and rhesus macaque models, viral replication and histopathological injuries caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection are significantly inhibited by the administration of the lipoglycopeptide antibiotic dalbavancin. These results suggest that dalbavancin is a promising anti-COVID-19 drug candidate.
References: PMID: 33262453/doi: 10.1038/s41422-020-00450-0
Contact Info: Ren Lai: rlai@mail.kiz.ac.cn; Yong-Tang Zheng: zhengyt@mail.kiz.ac.cn
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41422-020-00450-0
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Mabwell Bioscience, Shanghai, China
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, therapeutics, neutralizing antibody, primates
Summary of Study: A single dose of monoclonal antibody MW05 (after introducing mutation to the Fc region) blocks infection of SARS-CoV-2 in prophylactic treatment and clears SARS-CoV-2 in three days in rhesus monkeys.
References: PMID: 33188207/doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-19568-1
Contact Info: Datao Liu: datao.liu@mabwell.com
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19568-1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Texas Medical Branch
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pathogenesis, primates
Summary of Study: African green monkeys support robust SARS-CoV-2 replication and develop pronounced respiratory disease, which may more accurately reflect human COVID-19 cases than other nonhuman primate species.
References: PMID: 33235385/doi: 10.1038/s41590-020-00835-8
Contact Info: Thomas Geisbert: twgeisbe@utmb.edu
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41590-020-00835-8
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Solongevity Research, Milan, Italy
Keywords: SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, cross-reactive immunity, pathogenesis, primates
Summary of Study: Review Article discussing the potential of cross-reactive immunity to drive the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 and its implications for current efforts to develop immune-based therapies and vaccines.
References: PMID: 33178193/doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.567710
Contact Info: Alberto Beretta: alterto.beretta@solongevity.com
URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2020.567710/full
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Duke University School of Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing and infection-enhancing antibodies, mice and primates
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-2 antibodies can mediate infection enhancement in vitro. However, this in vitro phenotype does not translate to enhanced infection in a non-human primate model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These preclinical results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 antibody treatments or the induction of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by vaccination have a low likelihood of exacerbating COVID-19 disease in humans.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.31.424729
Contact Info: Barton Haynes: barton.haynes@duke.edu/Kevin Saunders: kevin.saunders@duke.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.31.424729v2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: CureVac AG Tuebingen, Germany
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccine CVnCoV, safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy, primates
Summary of Study: The efficacy of CVnCoV, a lipid-nanoparticle encapsulated, sequence optimized mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was evaluated. The study demonstrates that CVnCoV induces robust humoral and cellular responses in non-human primates. These results demonstrate safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of this vaccine that extend beyond previously published preclinical data and provide strong support for further clinical testing in ongoing phase 2b/3 efficacy studies.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.23.424138
Contact Info: no contact information provided
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.23.424138v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: ImmunityBio, Culver City, CA
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, prime and oral boost bivalent hAd5 vaccination, T-cell response, primates
Summary of Study: Treatment with bivalent hAd5S-Fusion + N-ETSD subcutaneous and oral vaccine provided complete protection of nasal and lung airways against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques. Data demonstrate that all NHPs immunized with the hAD5 S-Fusion + N-ETSD vaccine generated anti-S IgG and that 9 of 10 animals showed inhibition in cPass (TM) and thus the presence of anti-S RBD neutralizing antibodies.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.08.416297
Contact Info: Patrick Soon-Shiong: patrick@nantworks.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.08.416297v3
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Ministry of Health
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, viral transmission, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2/WH-09/human/2020/CHN via conjunctival, intratracheal, and intragastric routes. Results suggest that conjunctiva is a potential portal for viral transmission; virus was also detected after IT inoculation. No virus was detected after IG inoculation.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.03.13.990036; Preprint
Contact Info: Deng W, et al.; correspondence to Chuan Qin (qinchuan@pumc.edu.cn)
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.13.990036v2.full
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Pennsylvania
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, vaccine, pseudovirus, neutralizing antibodies, mice, primates, humans
Summary of Study: SARs-CoV-2 recently mutated near the region targeted by many vaccines. The current study tested whether the mutation would hinder the ability of current vaccines to induce neutralizing antibodies in mice/NHPs/human serum. Their results indicate the viral mutation will not interfere with the effects of vaccines developed based on the original protein structure.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.07.22.20159905
Contact Info: Drew Weissman, Email: Drew@pennmedicine.upenn.edu OR Davis Montefiori, email: david.montefiori@duke.edu
URL: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.22.20159905v2
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: beta coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2, receptor sequence binding
Summary of Study: Authors show that host protease processing during viral entry is a significant barrier for several lineage B viruses and that bypassing this barrier allows several lineage B viruses to enter human cells through an unknown receptor. They also demonstrate how different lineage B viruses can recombine to gain entry into human cells, and confirm that human ACE2 is the receptor for the recently emerging SARS-CoV-2.
References: doi: 10.1038/s41564-020-0688-y
Contact Info: Letko M, et al.; correspondence to Michael Letko (michael.letko@wsu.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32094589/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, animal models, viral load, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 (isolate nCoV WA1-2020). Data established that the rhesus macaque recapitulates human disease with respect to virus replication and shedding, the presence of pulmonary infiltrates, histological lesions and seroconversion.
References: doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2324-7; PMID: 32396922
Contact Info: Munster VJ, et al.; correspondence to Emmie de Wit (emmie.dewit@nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32396922/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, vaccine
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques vaccinated intramuscularly with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 showed humoral and cellular immune response. The authors observed a significantly reduced viral load in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and respiratory tract tissues of vaccinated animals challenged with SARS-CoV-2 compared with control animals, and no pneumonia was observed in the vaccinated animals.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.05.13.093195; Preprint; PMID: 32511340
Contact Info: van Doremalen N, et al.; correspondence to Vincent Munster (vincent.munster@nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32511340/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: crab-eating macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, serial computed tomography, positron emission tomography, FDG
Summary of Study: Crab-eating macaques were exposed to SARS-CoV-2 via direct bilateral primary intrabronchial instillation, which resulted in mild-moderate COVID-19 symptoms.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.05.14.096727; PMID: 32511338
Contact Info: Finch CL, et al.; correspondence to Thomas Friedrich (tfriedrich@wisc.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32511338/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, animal models
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 (isolate nCoV-WA1-2020) via a combination of intratracheal, intranasal, ocular, and oral routes. Outcome established that the rhesus macaque recapitulates moderate disease observed in the majority of human cases.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.03.21.001628; PMID: 32511299
Contact Info: Munster VJ, et al.; correspondence to Emmie de Wit (emmie.dewit@nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32511299/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: coronavirus, remdesivir, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, animal models, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: The authors tested the efficacy of remdesivir treatment in a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.04.15.043166
Contact Info: Williamson BN, et al.; correspondence to Emmie de Wit (emmie.dewit@nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32516797/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: TNPRC
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pathology, primates
Summary of Study: Four, aged, AGMs were exposed by two routes to SARS-CoV-2 isolate USA-WA1/2020. The study reports fatal ARDS in two of the infected animals, demonstrating pathological lesions and disease similar to severe COVID-19 in humans. Three of the four infected AGMs showed cytokine storm, and all four animals showed increased levels of IL-6 in plasma. These results suggest the AGM is a useful model to study disease pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.06.18.157933
Contact Info: Robert V. Blair, et al; correspondence to Jay Rappaport, jrappaport@tulane.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.18.157933v2
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: MERS-CoV, animal model, antiviral, remdesivir, therapy.
Summary of Study: The efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic remdesivir treatment was tested in a rhesus macaque model of MERS-CoV infection. Prophylactic remdesivir treatment completely prevented MERS-CoV-induced clinical disease; therapeutic remdesivir treatment also provided a clear clinical benefit. The data support testing the efficacy of remdesivir treatment in the context of a MERS clinical trial.
References: doi: 10.1073/pnas.1922083117; PMID: 32054787
Contact Info: de Wit E, et al.; Correspondence to Emmie de Wit (emmie.dewit@nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32054787/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: review
NPRC/Institute: University of Oxford
Keywords: coronavirus, COVID-19, MERS, SARS, vaccine
Summary of Study: The author reviewed the past and ongoing vaccine development efforts for clinically relevant coronavirus strains with the intention that this information helps in the development of effective and safe vaccines for COVID-19.
References: doi: 10.1007/s40121-020-00300-x
Contact Info: Padron-Regalado E; correspondence to Eriko Padron-Regalado (eriko.padronregalado@gmail.com)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32328406/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Oxford
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, protein nanoparticle vaccine, primates
Summary of Study: Ferrets and rhesus macaques were challenged with SARCS-CoV-2 to assess the potential for vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) in animals vaccinated with formaldehyde-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 formulated with Alhydrogel. This study revealed no evidence of enhanced disease in rhesus macaques.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.21.423746
Contact Info: Andrew Gorringe: andrew.gorringe@phe.gov.uk
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.21.423746v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: BGi (China) and others
Keywords: single-cell transcriptomics, nonhuman primate, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, ACE2, TMPRSS2, kidney, interleukin 6, STAT transcription factors, immune cell exhaustion
Summary of Study: A single-cell transcriptome atlas of nine monkey tissues was used to study COVID-19. ACE2+TMPRSS2+ epithelial cells of lung, kidney and liver were shown to be targets for SARS-CoV-2. ACE2 correlation analysis identifies IDO2 and ANPEP as potential therapeutic opportunities.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.04.10.022103; Preprint
Contact Info: Han L, et al.; correspondence to Xun Xu (xuxun@genomics.cn)
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.10.022103v2.abstract
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Eli Lilly & Co.; NIAID
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, anti-spike neutralizing antibodies, primate challenge model
Summary of Study: Prophylactic treatment with LY-CoV555 (a neutralizing antibody) resulted in significant decreases in viral load (gRNA) and viral replication (sgRNA) in the lower respiratory tract of rhesus macaques following SARS-CoV2 inoculation, based on determination in BAL and lung tissue.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.30.318972
Contact Info: Bryan Jones: jones_bryan_edward@lilly.com; Ester Falconer: ester.falconer@abcellera.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.30.318972v3
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Harvard Medical School
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Multiplexed proteomics and imaging, acute respiratory distress, primates
Summary of Study: The data in this paper highlight the ability of proteomics, imaging, and spatial transcriptomics of the same specimens to trace successive steps in diverse regulatory cascades. This approach is applicable to any fixed tissue. No other approach involving readily available histological specimens provides a similarly integrated picture of a disease process.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.14.339952
Contact Info: Marian Kalocsay: marian_kalocsay@hms.harvard.edu; Peter Sorger: peter_sorger@hms.harvard.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.10.14.339952v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Harvard Medical School
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pathogenesis, purified IgG, primates
Summary of Study: Adoptive transfer of purified IgG from convalescent macaques protects naive recipient rhesus macaques against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in a dose dependent fashion.
References: PMID: 33276369/doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-03041-6
Contact Info: Dan  Barouch: dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-03041-6
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Minnesota
Keywords: 2019-nCoV, SARS coronavirus, ACE2, animal reservoir, cross-species transmission, human-to-human transmission
Summary of Study: The authors' decade-long structural studies on the receptor recognition by SARS-CoV have identified key interactions between SARS-CoV spike protein and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV.
References: doi: 10.1128/JVI.00127-20
Contact Info: Wan Y, et al.; correspondence to Fang Li (lifang@umn.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31996437/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: BioNTech, Mainz, Germany
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, BNT162b vaccine, primates
Summary of Study: Prime/boost vaccination of rhesus macaques with BNT162b candidates protect macaques from SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Both candidates are being evaluated in phase 1 trials in Germany and the US.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.11.421008
Contact Info: Ugur Sahin: ugur.sahin@biontech.de
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.11.421008v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Bern
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, airway epithelial cell (AEC) culture repository, multiple animal species
Summary of Study: Well-differentiated primary airway epithelial cell cultures were established from various domestic and wildlife animal species (including rhesus macaques) to assess the potential intermediate and spillback host reservoir spectrum of SARS-CoV-2. rhesus macaque post-mortem tracheobronchial airway tissue material. These were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2/Munchen-1.1/2020/929 isolate and monitored for viral titer for 96 hours. Infectious progeny virus were absent in most species, except rhesus macaques and cats, indicating that some species are not ideally suited as animal models in studies of SARS-CoV-2.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.10.374587
Contact Info: Ronald Dijkman: ronald.dijkman@ifik.unibe.ch
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.10.374587v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: KU Leuven, Belgium
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, live virus-vectored vaccine candidate, primates
Summary of Study: Vaccine candidate YF-SO (a live virus-vectored SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate using the yellow fever 17D(YF17D) vaccine as a vector to express a non-cleavable prefusion form of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike antigen) prevents infection with SARS-CoV-2 in a stringent hamster model as well as in non-human primates.
References: PMID: 33260195/doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-3035-9
Contact Info: Johan Neyts: johan.neyts@kuleuven.be
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-3035-9
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: SWNPRC/Regeneron
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing antibody therapy, primates
Summary of Study: REGN-COV2, a cocktail of two potent neutralizing antibodies (REGN10987+REGN10922) can greatly reduce virus load in lower and upper airway and decrease virus induced pathological sequalae when administered prophylactically or therapeutically.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.08.02.233320
Contact Info: Baum, A., et al; correspondence to C.A. Kyratsous, christos.kyratsous@regeneron.com
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.02.233320v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Calgary
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, ACE2, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: Authors conducted a study to show that all NHPs exhibit the same set of twelve key amino acid residues as human ACE2, putting them at danger of infection from humans.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.04.09.034967
Contact Info: Melin AD, et al.; correspondence to Amanda Melin (amanda.melin@ucalgary.ca)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32511330/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Intuitive Biosciences
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, spike binding antibodies with neutralizing activity, immunization, primates
Summary of Study: Efficacy of vaccine candidates based on the SARS-CoV-2 spike was assessed in cynomolgus macaques by examinating their ability to generate spike binding antibodies with neutralizing activity. Neutralizing activity persisted for more than 20 weeks. These data support the utility of spike subunit-based antigens as a vaccine for use in humans.
References: PMID: 33398285/doi: 10.1101/2020.12.20.422693
Contact Info: Kimberly Luke (no contact information)
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.12.20.422693v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: SWNPRC/BioNtech
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, RNA vaccine, immune response, mice, primates
Summary of Study: This study challenged immunization with the BNT162b2 vaccine candidate containing mRNA encoding for the spike glycoprotein in mice and monkeys. Immunization in mice induced a strong immune response and immunization in monkeys fully protected the animal's lungs from SARS-CoV-2 infection.
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.09.08.280818
Contact Info: Ugur Sahin; Email: Ugur.Sahin@biontech.de
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.08.280818v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: pigtail macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Washington NPRC
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, two-component nanoparticle vaccine, mice and primates
Summary of Study: The study showed that two-component self-assembling SARS-CoV-2 RBC nanoparticle vaccine candidates elicit potent neutralizing Ab responses targeting multiple distinct RBT epitopes.
References: PMID: 33160446/doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.10.043
Contact Info: David Veesler: dveesler@uw.edu
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867420314501?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: CNPRC/Vitalant
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, protective immunity, CD4 helper cells, primates
Summary of Study: vaccine promoting Th1-type Tfh responses that target the S protein may lead to protective immunity
References: doi: 10.1101/2020.07.07.191007
Contact Info: Sonny Elizaldi, UC Davis CIID
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.07.191007v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Sanofi Pasteur
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, mRNA vaccine candidates, primates
Summary of Study: Several mRNA constructs expressing various structural conformations of S-protein were tested in  cynomolgus macaques for their capacity to elicit neutralizing antibodies. The candidate MRT5500 was shown to be immunogenic by eliciting potent neutralizing antibodies in both mice and cynomolgus macaques and is position for further development in clinical studies as a vaccine for the prevention of COVID-19.
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.14.337535
Contact Info: none listed
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.10.14.337535v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys, rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Tulane NPRC
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, immune response, primates
Summary of Study: Increased levels of monocytes and chemokines after infection is associated with viral load and disease severity
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.21.213777
Contact Info: Monica Vaccari, mvaccari@tulane.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.21.213777v1%20
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis, therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: ONPRC/ENPRC
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, kinase inhibitor, primates
Summary of Study: Baricitinib treatment resolves lower airway inflammation and neutrophil recruitment in SARS-CoV-2-infected rhesus macaques
References: doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.16.300277
Contact Info: Dr. Mirko Paiardini; E-mail address: mirko.paiardini@emory.edu
URL: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.16.300277v1
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys, rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tulane NPRC
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pathogenesis, immune response kinetics, blood and lungs, primates
Summary of Study: Investigation of immune events from the acute state up to four weeks post SARS-CoV-2 infection unravels cellular mechanisms of COVID-19 and suggests that NHPs may be appropriate models to test immune therapies.
References: PMID: 33247138/doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-19967-4
Contact Info: M. Vaccari: mvaccari@tulane.edu
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19967-4
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: african green monkeys, rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tulane NPRC
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, pathogenesis, aged animals, primates
Summary of Study: Data indicate that both African green monkeys and Rhesus macaques are capable of modeling SARS-CoV-2 infection and suggest that aged African green monkeys may be useful for modeling severe disease manifestations, including Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).
References: PMID: 33171111/doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2020.10.016
Contact Info: Robert Blair: rblair3@tulane.edu
URL: https://ajp.amjpathol.org/article/S0002-9440(20)30497-1/fulltext
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Tulane NPRC
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, immune response, from acute state up to four weeks post infection, primates
Summary of Study: This study uncovers critical steps in the immune events of the host response to SARS-CoV-2 and describes the correlates of viral replication and disease progression. The authors show viral driven inflammation/cell recruitment to the lung occurs rapidly, and lasts up to 4 weeks post-infection. Results suggest that NHP may be appropriate models to test immune therapies.
References: PMID: 33247138/doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-19967-4
Contact Info: M. Vaccari: mvaccari@tulane.edu
URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19967-4
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2020
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Emory NPRC
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Baricitinib, immunologic and virologic efficacy, primates
Summary of Study: The authors investigated the immunologic and virologic efficacy of baricitinib in a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Animals treated with baricitinib showed reduced inflammation, decreased lung infiltration of inflammatory cells, reduced NETosis activity, and more limited lung pathology. These data support a beneficial role for the use of baricitinib as a frontline treatment for inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection.
References: PMID: 33278358/doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.11.007
Contact Info: Steven Bosinger: steven.bosinger@emory.edu
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867420314665?via%3Dihub
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2019
Study Type/Review: review
NPRC/Institute: Division of Molecular and Translational Sciences, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
Keywords: ARDS, coronavirus, interferon, SARS-CoV, therapeutic, zoonosis
Summary of Study: Many of the treatments used in SARS or MERS patients in outbreak situations were not based on clear in vitro and in vivo model evidence of efficacy, and meta-analyses of treatments failed to show effective therapeutic regimens. Development of a drug discovery pipeline consisting of in vitro and in vivo models of coronavirus infection is needed to identify antivirals targeting essential mechanisms of infection.
References: doi: 10.1080/17460441.2019.1581171
Contact Info: Totura AL, et al.; correspondence to Sina Bavari (sina.bavari.civ@mail.mil)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30849247/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2018
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Keywords: coronavirus, MERS-CoV, animal models, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: To achieve high viral loads of MERS-CoV as seen in humans, a spike-modified MERS clone was tested in rhesus macaques. Respiratory disease was mild and transient.
References: doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-28900-1; PMID: 30013082
Contact Info: Cockrell AS, et al.; correspondence to Adam Cockrell (adam_cockrell@unc.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30013082/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2018
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, PR China
Keywords: MERS-CoV, neutralizing antibodies, coronavirus, receptor sequence binding
Summary of Study: A recombinant VSV-vectored MERS-CoV vaccine neutralized antibodies and T cell responses in rhesus monkeys after a single intramuscular or intranasal immunization dose.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2017.12.007; PMID: 29246504; PMCID: PMC7113862
Contact Info: Liu R, et al.; correspondence to Zhigao Bu (buzhigao@caas.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29246504/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2018
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Wuhan University, China
Keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV, vaccine, animal models, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques were given an inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine to evaluate whether it would cause disease enhancement. Vaccination resulted in low antibodies and did not induce disease enhancement.
References: doi: 10.1007/s12250-018-0009-2; PMID: 29541941; PMCID: PMC6178114
Contact Info: Luo F, et al.; correspondence to Wei Hou (houwei@whu.edu.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29541941/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2018
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID, Rocky Mountain Laboratories
Keywords: MERS-CoV, immunosuppression, pathology, shedding, macaque
Summary of Study: Immuno-compromised rhesus macaques were evaluated to determine if their immunosuppression resulted in higher MERS-CoV replication and shedding.
References: doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00205; PMID: 29483914
Contact Info: Prescott J, et al.; correspondence to Vincent Munster (vincent.munster@nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29483914/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: baboons
Year Published: 2017
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Papio hamadryas hamadryas, Commensal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, coronaviruses, infections
Summary of Study: Fifty baboons were screened for antibodies to different types of coronaviruses to determine if they could transmit to humans. The animals were positive for human and canine coronaviruses but not for MERS.
References: doi: 10.1017/S0950268817000905; PMID: 28478775; PMCID: PMC7113016
Contact Info: Olarinmoye AO, et al.; correspondence to K. Al-Hezaimi (kalhezaime@ksu.edu.sa)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28478775/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, marmosets
Year Published: 2017
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Pennsylvania
Keywords: MERS, CoV, origin, pathogenesis
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques infected with MERS-CoV experience self-limiting transient lower respiratory tract infection involving mild to moderate pneumonia, not mimicking severe human disease associated with MERS-CoV. Infection in marmosets causes severe, often lethal disease and recapitulates human disease.
References: doi: 10.12688/f1000research.11827.1; PMID: 29026532; PMCID: PMC5583735
Contact Info: Goldstein SA and Weiss SR; correspondence to Susan R. Weiss (weisssr@mail.med.upenn.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29026532/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2017
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: MERS-CoV, Saudi Arabia, evolution, spike protein, transmission, vaccine
Summary of Study: Mentions NHP studies of promising vaccine candidates that target spike protein.
References: doi: 10.1007/s11684-017-0521-z; PMID: 28500431; PMCID: PMC7089120
Contact Info: Rabaan AA, et al.; correspondence to Ali A. Rabaan (ali.rabaan@jhah.com)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28500431/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, marmosets
Year Published: 2017
Study Type/Review: review
NPRC/Institute: Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
Keywords: Animal model, biosafety level, coronavirus, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, emerging pathogen, human dipeptidyl peptidase-4
Summary of Study: Reviewed different species that could be used as an animal model for MERS. Rhesus macaques had mild, transient disease, while common marmosets experienced severe disease.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2017.03.001; PMID: 28616501; PMCID: PMC5454147
Contact Info: Vergara-Alert J, et al.; correspondence to Joaquim Segalés (joaquim.segales@cresa.uab.cat)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28616501/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2017
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: College of Wildlife Resources, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China
Keywords: MERS-CoV, immune response, nonhuman primate, vaccine, virus-like particles
Summary of Study: MERS-CoV virus-like particles have excellent immunogenicity in rhesus macaques and represent a promising vaccine candidate.
References: doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8475; PMID: 27050368; PMCID: PMC5355045
Contact Info: Wang C, et al.; correspondence to Xianzhu Xia (xiaxzh@cae.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27050368/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, marmosets
Year Published: 2017
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College
Keywords: MERS-CoV, DDP4, pneumonia, entry receptor
Summary of Study: Description of the histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings from rhesus macaque and common marmoset animal models of MERS-CoV infection.
References: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172093; PMID: 28234937; PMCID: PMC5325479
Contact Info: Yu P, et al.; correspondence to Chuan Qin (ginchaun@pumc.edu.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28234937/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2016
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: AIDS Institute and Research Center for Infection and Immunology, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine
Keywords: viral infection, innate immunity, mucosal immunology, respiratory tract diseases
Summary of Study: This study provides a comprehensive overview of the spatiotemporal interactions of SARS-CoV, monocytes/macrophages, and the DC network in mucosal tissues and highlights the fact that, while these innate cells contribute to viral clearance, they probably also serve as shelters and vehicles to provide a mechanism for the virus to escape host mucosal innate immunity and disseminate systemically.
References: doi: 10.1038/mi.2015.127; PMID: 26647718
Contact Info: Liu L, et al.; correspondence to L. Liu (liuli71@hku.hk)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26647718/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, marmosets
Year Published: 2016
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health and the International Vaccine Institute, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: MERS-CoV, Saudi Arabia, animal models, coronavirus, prevention, therapeutic antibodies, vaccine, viruses, zoonosis
Summary of Study: A combination of both rodents and nonhuman primate models should be considered in evaluating and developing preventive and therapeutic candidates under standardized conditions. Rhesus macaques are shown to exhibit mild disease; common marmosets exhibit severe disease.
References: doi: 10.3201/eid2208.160229; PMID: 27439020; PMCID: PMC4982192
Contact Info: Excler JL, et al.; correspondence Jean Louis Excler (jeanlouis.excler@ivi.int)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27439020/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, marmosets
Year Published: 2016
Study Type/Review: review
NPRC/Institute: CDC, Office of Preparedness and Response, NIH
Keywords: MERS-CoV, animal models, antibodies, antivirals, diagnostics, medical countermeasures, monoclonal, nonhuman primate, polyclonal, respiratory infections, therapeutics, vaccines, viruses
Summary of Study: A review of medical countermeasures for MERS and need to prioritize animal model development.
References: doi: 10.3201/eid2207.160022; PMID: 27191188; PMCID: PMC4918159
Contact Info: Uyeki TM, et al.; correspondence to Timothy M. Uyeki (tuyeki@cdc.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27191188/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2016
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College
Keywords: B-cell peptide epitope, SARS-CoV, antibody-dependent enhancement, epitope sequence-dependent enhancement, peptide, vaccine
Summary of Study: Demonstrated that a SARS-CoV inactivated vaccine could induce antibody-dependent enhancement and lung pathology in rhesus macaques.
References: doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.6b00006; PMID: 27627203; PMCID: PMC7075522
Contact Info: Wang Q, et al.; correspondence to Nobuo Sakaguchi (nobusaka@ifrec.osaka-u.ac.jp)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27627203/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2016
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID, Emerging Viral Pathogens Section
Keywords: animal model, MERS, antibody therapy, human monoclonal antibody therapy, MERS-CoV, respiratory syndrome
Summary of Study: In this report, we describe the clinical and radiographic changes of rhesus monkeys following infection with 5×10(6) PFU MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2016.01.004; PMID: 26828465
Contact Info: Johnson RF, et al.; correspondence to Reed F. Johnson (johnsonreed@mail.nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26828465/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: marmosets
Year Published: 2016
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: The University of Hong Kong, China
Keywords: MERS-CoV, ARDS, Smad7, FGF2
Summary of Study: Common marmosets infected by MERS-CoV developed ARDS and disseminated infection in kidneys and other organs.
References: doi: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.4; PMID: 27572168; PMCID: PMC7097571
Contact Info: Yeung ML, et al.; correspondence to Chuan Qin (qinchuan@pumc.edu.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27572168/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, marmosets
Year Published: 2016
Study Type/Review: review
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: MERS-CoV, animal models, common marmosets, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, mice, pathogenicity, rabbits, respiratory system, review, rhesus macaques, transgenic
Summary of Study: This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge on human MERS-CoV infections, the probable origin of MERS-CoV, and the available animal models of MERS-CoV infection.
References: doi: 10.1177/0300985815620845; PMID: 26869154
Contact Info: Baseler L, et al.; correspondence to H. Feldmann (feldmannh@niaid.nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26869154/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, marmosets
Year Published: 2016
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: ASIP
Keywords: MERS-CoV, pneumonia, DDP4
Summary of Study: The rhesus macaque and common marmoset models of MERS-CoV span the wide range of disease severity reported in MERS-CoV-infected humans, which will aid in investigating MERS-CoV disease pathogenesis.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.10.025; PMID: 26724387
Contact Info: Baseler LJ, et al.; correspondence to Emmie de Witt (emmie.dewit@nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26724387/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: marmosets
Year Published: 2015
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: HKU Med, ILAS
Keywords: Kaletra, MERS, animal, common marmoset, coronavirus, interferon, lopinavir, mycophenolate, primate, treatment
Summary of Study: This study assessed three repurposed drugs with potent in vitro anti-MERS-CoV activity (mycophenolate mofetil [MMF], lopinavir/ritonavir, and interferon-β1b) in common marmosets with severe disease resembling MERS in humans.
References: doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv392; PMID: 26198719
Contact Info: Chan JF, et al.; correspondence to Kwok-Yung Yuen (kyyuen@hku.hk)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26198719/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2015
Study Type/Review: review
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: animal models, coronaviruses, MERS-CoV, receptor, SARS-CoV
Summary of Study: The authors reviewed a variety of animal models, including NHPs. Individual NHP studies are represented elsewhere in this document.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.02.030; PMID: 25791336
Contact Info: Sutton TC and Subbaro K; correspondence to Kanta Subbarao (ksubbarao@niaid.nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25791336/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV
NHP Species: multiple species
Year Published: 2015
Study Type/Review: review
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, animal model
Summary of Study: The authors reviewed a variety of animal models, including NHPs. Individual NHP studies are represented elsewhere in this document.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.coviro.2015.06.009; PMID: 26184451
Contact Info: Gretebeck LM and Subbaro K; correspondence to Kanta Subbarao (ksubbarao@niaid.nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26184451/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques, baboons
Year Published: 2015
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: City University of New York
Keywords: oligoadenylate synthetase 1, SARS-CoV, primates, convergent polymorphism
Summary of Study: This case investigated the evolution of OAS1 in primates by characterizing intra-specific variation in four species commonly used as models in infectious disease research: the rhesus macaque, the cynomolgus macaque, the olive baboon, and the Guinea baboon.
References: doi: 10.1007/s00251-015-0855-0; PMID: 26156123
Contact Info: Fish I and Boissinot S; correspondence to Stéphane Boissinot (sb5272@nyu.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26156123/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, marmosets
Year Published: 2015
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID, Emerging Viral Pathogens Section
Keywords: animal model, coronavirus, MERS, MERS-CoV, MERS, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: This data suggest that common marmosets developed a mild to moderate non-lethal respiratory disease, which was quantifiable by computed tomography (CT), with limited other clinical signs.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.07.013; PMID: 26342468
Contact Info: Johnson RF, et al.; correspondence to Reef F. Johnson (johnsonreed@mail.nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26342468/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2015
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID, Vaccine Research Center
Keywords: antibodies, vaccines, viral infection, virology
Summary of Study: This study developed DNA expression vectors and soluble protein immunogens that elicited cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against known, circulating strains of MERS-CoV.
References: doi: 10.1038/ncomms8712; PMID: 26218507
Contact Info: Wang L, et al.; correspondence to Wing-Pui Kong (vog.hin.diain@gnokw)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26218507/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2015
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID, Laboratory of Virology
Keywords: animal models, coronavirus, emerging viruses, MERS-CoV, public health
Summary of Study: This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on “From SARS to MERS: research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.”
References: doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2015.07.005; PMID: 26192750
Contact Info: Van Doremalen N and Munster VJ; correspondence to Vincent Munster (munster@nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26192750/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2015
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID, Integrated Research Facility, Division of Clinical Research
Keywords: [18F]-FDG-PET, MERS-CoV, animal models, kinetic modeling
Summary of Study: This study extends the use of kinetic modeling of [18F]-FDG uptake during lung inflammation to host immune response after MERS-CoV exposure in rhesus macaques. Compared with SUVs, K i computation increases signal-to-noise ratio of PET data that results in improved accuracy of measurement and method sensitivity.
References: doi: 10.1186/s13550-015-0143-x; PMID: 26573211
Contact Info: Chefer S, et al.; correspondence to S. Chefer (schefer@mail.nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26573211/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2015
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: NIAID, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Keywords: MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, vaccine
Summary of Study: These studies demonstrate that a consensus MERS spike protein synthetic DNA vaccine can induce protective responses against viral challenge, indicating that this strategy may have value as a possible vaccine modality against this emerging pathogen.
References: doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aac7462; PMID: 26290414
Contact Info: Muthumani K, et al.; correspondence to David B. Weiner (dbweiner@mail.med.upenn.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26290414/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques, african green monkeys
Year Published: 2014
Study Type/Review: review
NPRC/Institute: Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Keywords: SARS coronavirus, animal model, influenza, respiratory disease
Summary of Study: In this review, SARS-CoV infection is described in nonhuman primates (cynomolgus macaques and African green monkeys [AGMs]) and carnivores (ferrets and cats). This review focuses on the pathology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV and influenza A virus infections, not only comparing the two viruses, but also comparing the pathology of these virus infections in experimental animals to that in man.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2014.01.004; PMID: 24581932; PMCID: PMC7094469
Contact Info: van den Brand JMA; correspondence to T. Kuiken (t.kuiken@erasmusmc.nl)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24581932/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2014
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Institute of Laboratory Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing
Keywords: MERS, animal model, coronavirus, pathology, rhesus monkey
Summary of Study: This study developed rhesus macaques as a model for MERS-CoV using intratracheal inoculation.
References: doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit590; PMID: 24218506; PMCID: PMC7107340
Contact Info: Yao Y, et al.; correspondence Chuan Qin (qinchuan@pumc.edu.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24218506/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: marmosets
Year Published: 2014
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: MERS-CoV, DDP4, glycoprotein
Summary of Study: Infection with MERS-CoV causes lethal pneumonia in the common marmoset.
References: doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004250; PMID: 25144235; PMCID: PMC4140844
Contact Info: Falzarano D, et al.; correspondence to Vincent Munster (vincent.munster@nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25144235/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: african green monkeys
Year Published: 2014
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: LRRI
Keywords: SARS-CoV, nonhuman primate, immune response
Summary of Study: Aged African green monkey SARS-CoV infection model to better understand age-related mechanisms of increased susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. Studies indicate that pulmonary immunity is intrinsically different in the aged as compared to the juvenile host.
References: doi: 10.1186/1742-4933-11-4; PMID: 24642138; PMCID: PMC3999990
Contact Info: Clay C, et al.; correspondence to Kevin S. Harrod (kharrod@lrri.org)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24642138/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2013
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: DPP4, emerging infectious disease
Summary of Study: Upon a combination of intratracheal, ocular, oral, and intranasal inoculation with 7 × 106 50% tissue culture infectious dose of the MERS-CoV isolate HCoV-EMC/2012, rhesus macaques developed a transient lower respiratory tract infection.
References: doi: 10.1073/pnas.1310744110; PMID: 24062443; PMCID: PMC3799368
Contact Info: de Witt E, et al.; correspondence to Vincent Munster (vincent.munster@nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24062443/
Coronavirus Investigated: MERS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2013
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: NIAID, Wisconsin National Primate Research Center
Keywords: viral infection, drug therapy
Summary of Study: The combination of interferon-α2b and ribavirin was effective in reducing MERS-CoV replication in vitro.
References: doi: 10.1038/nm.3362; PMID: 24013700; PMCID: PMC4093902
Contact Info: Falzarano D, et al.; correspondence to Heinz Feldmann (feldmannh@niaid.nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24013700/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2013
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Liver Disease Center for Military Staff, Beijing, China
Keywords: SARS, convalescent sera, safety
Summary of Study: This study assesses the safety of a serum obtained from a convalescent SARS patient. The study was conducted in rhesus macaques, a valuable model for the evaluation of candidate therapeutic agents for SARS infection.
References: doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0366-6999.20130958; PMID: 24112184
Contact Info: He W, et al.; correspondence to Cheng Yun (yuncheng21@yahoo.com)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24112184/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques, african green monkeys
Year Published: 2011
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Keywords: ARDS, SARS, interleukin, acute lung injury
Summary of Study: To obtain further insight into the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-associated ALI, we compared SARS-CoV infections in two different nonhuman primate species, cynomolgus macaques and African green monkeys. Viral titers in the upper and lower respiratory tract were not significantly different in SARS-CoV-infected macaques and African green monkeys.
References: doi: 10.1128/JVI.02395-10
Contact Info: Smits SL, et al.; correspondence to Saskia L. Smits (s.smits@erasmusmc.nl)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21325418/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2011
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Department of Infectious Diseases, National Center for Global Health and Medicine
Keywords: SARS-CoV, coronavirus, nonhuman primate, 5H10
Summary of Study: Evaluate the efficacy of a fully human monoclonal antibody capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV in vitro in a rhesus macaque model of SARS.
References: doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir084; PMID: 21592986; PMCID: PMC7107252
Contact Info: Miyoshi-Akiyama T, et al.; correspondence to Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama (takiyam@ri.ncgm.go.jp)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21592986/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2011
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: AIDS Institute, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong/TNPRC base grant RR00164
Keywords: SARS-CoV, ACE2, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: Here the distribution of ACE2+ cells in the respiratory tract of Chinese rhesus macaques, which mimics the human situation and extends those observations to more proximal tissues of the respiratory tract than have been examined in humans.
References: doi: 10.1128/JVI.02292-10
Contact Info: Liu L, et al.; correspondence to Chuan Qin (qinchuan@pumc.edu.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21289121/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2011
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: SARS-CoV, coronavirus, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: Cynomolgus macaques were challenged via intratracheal and intranasal routes with the recombinant Urbani, GZjO2 and HC/SZ/61/03 SARS-CoV strains. This study demonstrates that cynomolgus macaques can be infected with zoonotic and early human epidemic phase SARS-CoV strains.
References: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018558; PMID: 21533129
Contact Info: Rockx B, et al.; correspondence to Barry Rockx (barry.rockx@utmb.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21533129/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2010
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, NIH grant HL080621-01A1 and the Virgo consortium
Keywords: SARS-CoV, ARDS, acute lung injury, NF-kappaB, interferon
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV-infected aged macaques develop more severe pathology than young adult animals, even though viral replication levels are similar.
References: doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000756; PMID: 20140198; PMCID: PMC2816697
Contact Info: Smits SL, et al.; correspondence to Saskia L. Smits (s.smits@erasmusmc.nl)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20140198/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2010
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Department of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan
Keywords: SARS-CoV, ACE2, TMPRSS2, S protein
Summary of Study: Identified transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), whose expression does correlate with SARS-CoV infection in the upper lobe of the lung in cynomolgus monkeys.
References: doi: 10.1128/JVI.01542-10; PMID: 20926566
Contact Info: Matsuyama S, et al.; correspondence to Shutoku Matsuyama (matuyama@nih.go.jp)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20926566/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2009
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Sino-German collaborative grant GZ230 (202/3)
Keywords: A549 cell, SARS, yeast strain AH109, SARS-CoV
Summary of Study: Ddx5 is a multifunctional protein important for studying virus–host cell interactions in SARS-CoV infections in rhesus macaques.
References: doi: 10.1007/s00705-009-0323-y; PMID: 19224332; PMCID: PMC7087151
Contact Info: Chang JY, et al.; correspondence to Yu-Mei Wen (ymwen@hsmu.edu.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19224332/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2009
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIH grant HL080621-01A1 and the Virgo consortium, an Innovative Cluster approved by the Netherlands Genomics Initiative
Keywords: innate immunity, interferon, plasmacytoid dendritic cell, SARS-CoV
Summary of Study: Interferon production plays a role during SARS-CoV infection in vitro and in cynomolgus macaque studies.
References: doi: 10.2217/17460794.4.1.71; PMID: 19885368; PMCID: PMC2680287; NIHMSID: NIHMS88172
Contact Info: de Lang A, et al.; correspondence to Bart Haagmans (b.haagmans@erasmusmc.nl)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19885368/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2008
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIH 1R01 HL080211-01, NIH 1R01 HL080211-01, Development Fund of the University of Hong Kong (UDF)
Keywords: SARS, SARS-CoV, ACE2, Chinese rhesus monkey, lung pathogenesis
Summary of Study: Y217N mutation plays a role in modulating SARS-CoV infection in rhesus macaques.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2008.08.016; PMID: 18801550; PMCID: PMC7103406
Contact Info: Chen Y, et al.; correspondence to Zhiwei Chen (zchenai@hkucc.hku.hk)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18801550/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2008
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Science and Technology Commission, Guangdong Provincial Government, Guangzhou Science and Technology Bureau, Guangzhou Economic & Technological Development District, etc.
Keywords: RNAi, siRNA, SARS, SARS-CoV, diffuse alveoli damage, proinflammatory cytokines
Summary of Study: Results in rhesus macaques support clinical investigation of siRNA to treat SARS.
References: doi: 10.1007/978-1-59745-191-8_11; PMID: 18369784; PMCID: PMC7121115
Contact Info: Tang Q, et al.
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18369784/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2007
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: National Key Basic Research Program of China (“973” Projects): Fund for the Basic Research of SARS Prevention (2003CB514108), Key Research Project of Natural Science Foundation of China (No.30490240), etc.
Keywords: equine, F(ab′)2, SARS–CoV, pharmacology, immunogenicity
Summary of Study: Equine anti-SARS–CoV F(ab′)2 is safe in macaques and can be used in prevention of SARS-CoV.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2007.09.011; PMID: 17996696; PMCID: PMC7106090
Contact Info: Xu Y, et al.; correspondence to Yuzhang Wu (wuyuzhang@yahoo.com)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17996696/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2007
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Research on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan
Keywords: animal model, coronavirus, cynomolgus monkey, pathogenesis, SARS-CoV
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV appears to spread into and perhaps via the intestinal and lymphatic systems of cynomolgus macaques.
References: doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2613.2007.00567.x; PMID: 18039277; PMCID: PMC2517337
Contact Info: Nagata N, et al.; correspondence to Noriyo Nagata (nnagata@nih.go.np)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18039277/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2007
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: CIHR, CCFF and FFBC to Jim Hu, NSFC (30530420) and 973 projects (2001CB510006, 2002CB513007) to Zhijie Chang, etc.
Keywords: SARS, oseltamivir, rhesus macaque, airway epithelial cell, leader sequence
Summary of Study: siRNAs were effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV in rhesus macaques both prophylactically and therapeutically with no adverse effects in the animals.
References: doi: 10.2165/00063030-200721010-00002; PMID: 17263585; PMCID: PMC7099728
Contact Info: Chang Z, et al.; correspondence to Jim Hu (jim.hu@utoronto.ca)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17263585/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2007
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIH R01 grant HL080621-01A1, European Union grant SP-22-CT-2004–511060
Keywords: SARS-CoV, SARS, interleukin, interferon
Summary of Study: The induction of early IFN signaling may be critical to confer protection against SARS-CoV infection in cynomolgus macaques.
References: doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030112; PMID: 17696609; PMCID: PMC1941749
Contact Info: de Lang A, et al.; correspondence to Bart Haagmans (b.haagmans@erasmusmc.nl)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17696609/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2007
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals
Keywords: SARS, adenovirus, vaccine
Summary of Study: Adenovirus-based vaccine stimulates robust immune responses to SARS-CoV in rhesus macaques.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.04.065; PMID: 17559989; PMCID: PMC7115643
Contact Info: Kobinger GP, et al.; correspondence to James Wilson (wilsonjm@mail.med.upenn.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17559989/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2007
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Medicine Foundation of China
Keywords: SARS-CoV, animal model, macaca rhesus
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV developed the typical SARS according to clinical, virological, and pathological findings.
References: PMID: 18076307
Contact Info: Luo F, et al.; correspondence to David Hou (houweidavid@yahoo.com)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18076307/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: chimpanzees
Year Published: 2006
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals
Keywords: AdH5, neutralizing antibodies, SARS-CoV, AdC7
Summary of Study: Findings warrant the further development of AdC7 as a vaccine carrier for SARS-CoV treatments in human trials.
References: doi: 10.1089/hum.2006.17.500; PMID: 16716107
Contact Info: Zhi Y, et al.; correspondence to James M. Wilson (wilsonjm@mail.med.upenn.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16716107/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: Formosan macaques
Year Published: 2006
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: National Health Research, Taiwan
Keywords: SARS-CoV, epitopes, vaccine, nucleocapsid protein
Summary of Study: This study identified immune responses of mice, monkeys, and humans to the rN protein of the coronavirus. Their findings indicate “immunodominant B-cell and T-cell epitopes” are conserved across these three species.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.01.058
Contact Info: Liu SJ, et al.; correspondence to Pele Chong (pelechong@nhri.org.tw)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16494977/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques, pigtail macaques
Year Published: 2006
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Emory NPRC NIH Base Grant RR00165
Keywords: adenovirus, coronavirus, enterovirus, norovirus, picobirnavirus, rotavirus
Summary of Study: Coronaviruses and other pathogens found in fecal specimens of rhesus, cynomolgus, and pigtail macaques may allow development of better diagnostics for these agents and determine which are clearly associated with gastroenteritis in monkeys.
References: doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0684.2006.00167.x; PMID: 17493140; PMCID: PMC7166873
Contact Info: Wang Y, et al.; correspondence to Baoming Jiang (bjiang@cdc.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17493140/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2006
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: USAMRIID
Keywords: SARS-CoV, nonhuman primate, SARS
Summary of Study: Cynomolgus macaques were infected with SARS-CoV. Symptoms similar to mild SARS-CoV characteristically seen in children were observed.
References: doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030149; PMID: 16605302
Contact Info: Lawler JV, et al.; correspondence to Jason Paragas (jason.paragas@det.amedd.army.mil)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16605302/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2006
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: University of Hong Kong
Keywords: SARS-associated coronavirus, viral kinetics, RNAi, siRNA, inhibition of SCoV reproduction
Summary of Study: Antiviral kinetics of siRNAs targeting structural genes of SARS-CoV in monkey kidney cells indicate that siRNAs targeting specifically replicase, spike protein, envelope protein, and membrane protein could be effective for inhibiting viral replication and infection.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2006.03.066
Contact Info: He ML, et al.; correspondence to Hsiang-fu Kung (khung@cuhk.edu.hk)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16638566/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2006
Study Type/Review: review
NPRC/Institute: Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Keywords: SARS, pathogenesis, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: Synopsis of findings from animal models of SARS-CoV with an emphasis on nonhuman primates.
References: doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030194
Contact Info: Haagman BL and Osterhaus A; correspondence to Albert Osterhaus (a.osterhaus@erasmusmc.nl)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16608385/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2006
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2003AA208201)
Keywords: SARS, SARS-CoV, inactivated vaccine, monkey
Summary of Study: Young adult male macaques were immunized with an adjuvant-containing purified vaccine, purified inactivated SARS vaccine, or an unpurified vaccine and then challenged with SARS-CoV BJ-01 strain. Results indicated the purified vaccine induced high levels of antibodies and prevented the replication of the virus in monkeys.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.06.038
Contact Info: Qin E, et al.; correspondence to Ede Qin (qinede@sohu.com) and Qingyu Zhu (qinyzh@yahoo.com.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16388880/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2005
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Tulane National Primate Research Center, base grant RR00164
Keywords: antibodies, viral, membrane glycoproteins, SARS virus, vaccinia virus, viral envelope proteins
Summary of Study: Administration of a vaccine targeting the S-glycoprotein gene in rhesus macaques resulted in a potent immune response and suggests that this vaccine could be effect in protecting Chinese rhesus macaques from SARS-CoV.
References: doi: 10.1128/JVI.79.5.2678-2688.2005
Contact Info: Chen Z, et al.; correspondence to Zhiwei Chen (zchen@adarc.org) and David D. Ho (dho@adarc.org)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15708987/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2005
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIH grants AI059136, AI059443-01, AI059443; UNC medical alumni endowment fund; Infectious Disease Research Training Grant 5T32AI07151-27
Keywords: SARS-CoV, hACE2, human ciliated airway epithelia
Summary of Study: In vitro infection of human (and to a lesser extent hamster and rhesus monkey) airway tissues revealed hACE2 as the primary receptor for SARS-CoV infection of a model of human ciliated airway epithelium.
References: doi: 10.1128/JVI.79.24.15511-15524.2005
Contact Info: Sims AC, et al.; correspondence to Amy C. Sims (sims0018@email.unc.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16306622/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2005
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Science and Technology Commission, Guangdong Provincial Government, Guangzhou Science and Technology Bureau, Guangzhou Economic & Technological Development District, and China World Trade Corporation (Guangzhou), Top Biotech, Ltd. (Hong Kong), China
Keywords: SARS, SARS-CoV, siRNA
Summary of Study: This study evaluated the efficacy of using siRNA inhibitors to treat SARS coronavirus (SCV) in vitro in rhesus macaques. Results indicated the siRNAs were able to alleviate infection and symptoms of SCV and warrant further investigation for development of new therapeutic agents.
References: doi: 10.1038/nm1280
Contact Info: Li B, et al.; correspondence to Nanshan Zhong (nanshan@vip.163.com)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16116432/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2005
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: National High Technology Research and Development Programme of China (863 Programme, Nos 2003AA208201, 2003AA208205, and 2003AA208213); National Nature Science Foundation (No 30340026); National Institutes of Health (AI‐061318); National Basic Research Programme of China (No 2003CB514109)
Keywords: SARS, coronavirus, animal model, pathology, rhesus monkey
Summary of Study: Authors inoculated eight rhesus macaques with SARS-CoV intranasally and systematically observed their response to the virus. All animals exhibited symptoms and inflammation indicating they are an ideal animal model for vaccine development.
References: doi: 10.1002/path.1769
Contact Info: Qin C, et al.; correspondence to Wei He (heweiimu@public.bta.net.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15892035/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2005
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Hong Kong
Keywords: SARS coronavirus, mutation, adaptation, selection
Summary of Study: Authors looked at SARS-CoV isolates from nonhuman primate cells for mutations that could provide insight for interspecies infection and the evolution of the SARS virus.
References: doi: 10.1002/jmv.20379
Contact Info: Poon LLM, et al.; correspondence to Joseph SM Peiris (malik@hkucc.hku.hk)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15977248/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2005
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Unknown funding
Keywords: SARS, siRNA, RNAi
Summary of Study: Three different treatments significantly reduced the severity of viral-induced SARS symptoms in rhesus macaques.
References: doi: 10.1038/sj.gt.3302682; PMID: 17262907; PMCID: PMC7091734
Contact Info: Chang Z and Hu Z; correspondence to Z. Chang (zhijiec@tsinghua.edu.cn)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17262907/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: marmosets
Year Published: 2005
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: University of Massachusetts Medical School
Keywords: SARS, SARS-CoV, pathogenesis
Summary of Study: C. jaccus were intratracheally inoculated with the Urbani strain of SARS-CoV. A variety of symptoms resulted, leading the authors to name the marmoset a promising NHP model for the study of SARS-CoV pathogenesis.
References: doi: 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)62989-6; PMID: 16049331
Contact Info: Greenough T, et al.; correspondence to Thomas Greenough (thomas.greenough@umassmed.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16049331/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2005
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: Chinese Medicine Foundation
Keywords: SARS-CoV, inactivated vaccine, immune response
Summary of Study: Authors evaluated an inactivated vaccine for SARS at different concentrations in rhesus monkeys. The study showed the vaccine was safe and induced mucosal and concomitant humoral immunity in monkeys.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.11.075
Contact Info: Zhou J, et al.; correspondence to Zhanqiu Yang (yangzhanqiu@163.com)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15837221/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2004
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Homeland Security
Keywords: SARS, SARS-CoV, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques were challenged with a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV; this treatment did not result in the sort of respiratory infection seen in humans.
References: doi: 10.1128/JVI.78.20.11404-11404.2004; PMID: 15452262
Contact Info: Rowe T, et al.; correspondence to James M. Wilson (wilsonjm@mail.med.upenn.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15452262/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques, african green monkeys
Year Published: 2004
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: NIAID
Keywords: replication, SARS, respiratory tract
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV administered intranasally and intratracheally to rhesus, cynomolgus, and African green monkeys replicated in the respiratory tract but did not induce illness.
References: doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2004.09.030; PMID: 15527829
Contact Info: McAuliffe J, et al.; correspondence to Kanta Subbarao (ksubbarao@niaid.nih.gov)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15527829/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2004
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Department of Microbiology, University of Hong Kong
Keywords: SARS-CoV, siRNA, FRhK-4
Summary of Study: SARS-CoV strain HKU-66078 (AY304494) was used to infect fetal rhesus kidney cells, which were then treated with siRNAs to demonstrate the antiviral effects of this treatment approach.
References: PMID: 15259899
Contact Info: Zheng B, et al.; correspondence to Lu PL(patricklu@intradigm.com)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15259899/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2004
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Institute of Virology, Erasmus University of Rotterdam
Keywords: SARS, SARS-CoV, Koch’s postulates, etiology
Summary of Study: Cynomolgus macaques were infected with SARS-CoV in a study that identified the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV) as the primary cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
References: doi: 10.1098/rstb.2004.1489; PMID: 15306393
Contact Info: Osterhaus ADME, et al.; correspondence to Albert Osterhaus (a.osterhaus@erasmusmc.nl)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15306393/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2004
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Keywords: SARS, SARS-CoV, infection, interferon
Summary of Study: Cynomolgus macaques were infected intratracheally with SARS-Co-V, resulting in extensive SCV infection in type 1 pneumocytes. This indicates that this cell type is the primary target for SCV infection early in the disease. Prophylactic treatment with pegylated interferon-α significantly reduces viral replication and excretion and should be considered a candidate drug for SARS therapy.
References: doi: 10.1038/nm1001; PMID: 14981511
Contact Info: Haagmans BL, et al.; correspondence to Albert Osterhaus (a.osterhaus@erasmusmc.nl)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14981511/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2004
Study Type/Review: therapeutics
NPRC/Institute: Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Keywords: SARS interferon, nonhuman primate
Summary of Study: Cynomolgus macaques that were given pegylated interferon-α 3 days before infection with the SARS virus excreted far less virus from their throats, and their lung damage was reduced by some 80%.
References: doi: 10.1126/science.303.5662.1273a
Contact Info: Enserink M; correspondence to Martin Enserink (menserin@aaas.org)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14988528/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: cynomolgus macaques
Year Published: 2003
Study Type/Review: pathogenesis
NPRC/Institute: Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Keywords: SARS, SARS-CoV, pneumonia
Summary of Study: Four cynomolgus macaques were infected with SARS-CoV which resulted in pneumonia similar to that in humans with SARS. This fulfills the criteria required to prove that SARS-CoV is the primary cause of SARS.
References: doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13967-0; PMID: 12892955
Contact Info: Kuiken T, et al.; correspondence to T. Kuiken (t.kuiken@erasmusmc.nl)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12892955/
Coronavirus Investigated: SARS-CoV
NHP Species: rhesus macaques
Year Published: 2003
Study Type/Review: vaccine
NPRC/Institute: University of Pittsburgh
Keywords: SARS, SARS-CoV, spike protein
Summary of Study: Rhesus macaques were immunized intramuscularly with a combination of the three Ad5-SARS-CoV vectors or a control vector, followed by a booster vaccination on day 28. All vaccinated animals had antibody responses against spike protein S1 fragment and T-cell responses against the nucleocapsid protein, showing that an adenoviral-based vaccine can induce strong immune responses in the monkey.
References: doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14962-8; PMID: 14667748
Contact Info: Gao W, et al.; correspondence to Andrea Gambotto (agamb@pitt.edu)
URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14667748/

Last updated: 11-10-2021